Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder

A cross-sectional study in 35 countries

E. P M Brouwers, J. Mathijssen, T. Van Bortel, L. Knifton, K. Wahlbeck, C. Van Audenhove, N. Kadri, Ch Chang, B. R. Goud, D. Ballester, L. F. Tófoli, R. Bello, M. F. Jorge-Monteiro, H. Zäske, I. Milacic, A. Uçok, C. Bonetto, A. Lasalvia, G. Thornicroft, J. Van Weeghel & 116 others Graham Thornicroft, Tine Van Bortel, Samantha Treacy, Elaine Brohan, Shuntaro Ando, Diana Rose, Kristian Wahlbeck, Esa Aromaa, Johanna Nordmyr, Fredrica Nyqvist, Carolina Herberts, Oliver Lewis, Jasna Russo, Dorottya Karsay, Rea Maglajlic, Antonio Lasalvia, Silvia Zoppei, Doriana Cristofalo, Chiara Bonetto, Isabella Goldie, Lee Knifton, Neil Quinn, Norman Sartorius, Chantal Van Audenhove, Gert Scheerder, Else Tambuyzer, Valentina Hristakeva, Dimitar Germanov, Jean Luc Roelandt, Simon Vasseur Bacle, Nicolas Daumerie, Aude Caria, Harald Zaske, Wolfgang Gaebel, Marina Economou, Eleni Louki, Lily Peppou, Klio Geroulanou, Judit Harangozo, Julia Sebes, Gabor Csukly, Giuseppe Rossi, Mariangela Lanfredi, Laura Pedrini, Arunas Germanavicius, Natalja Markovskaja, Vytis Valantinas, Jaap Van Weeghel, Jenny Boumans, Eleonoor Willemsen, Annette Plooy, Teresa Duarte, Fatima Jorge Monteiro, Radu Teodorescu, Iuliana Radu, Elena Pana, Janka Hurova, Dita Leczova, Vesna Svab, Nina Konecnik, Blanca Reneses, Juan J. Lopez-Ibor, Nerea Palomares, Camila Bayon, Alp Uçok, Gulsah Karaday, Nicholas Glozier, Nicole Cockayne, Luís Fernando Tófoli, Maria Suely Alves Costa, Roumen Milev, Teresa Garrah, Geetha Jayaram, Heather Stuart, Branka Aukst Margetic, Petra Folnegovic Groiæ, Barbora Wenigova, Elepova Pavla, Doaa Nader Radwan, Pradeep Johnson, Ramakrishna Goud, N. Nandesh, Geetha Jayaram, Yuriko Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Asami Matsunaga, Peter Bernick, Bawo James, Bolanle Ola, Olugbenga Owoeye, Yewande Oshodi, Jibril Abdulmalik, Kok Yoon Chee, Norhayati Ali, Nadia Kadri, Dounia Belghazi, Yassine Anwar, Nashi Khan, Rukhsana Kausar, Ivona Milacic Vidojevic, Athula Sumathipala, Chih Cheng Chang, Fethi Nacef, Uta Ouali, Hayet Ouertani, Rabaa Jomli, Abdelhafidh Ouertani, Khadija Kaaniche, Ricardo Bello, Manuel Ortega, Arturo Melone, María Andréina, Francisco Marco, Arturo Ríos, Ernesto Rodríguez, Arianna Laguado

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: Whereas employment has been shown to be beneficial for people with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) across different cultures, employers' attitudes have been shown to be negative towards workers with MDD. This may form an important barrier to work participation. Today, little is known about how stigma and discrimination affect work participation of workers with MDD, especially from their own perspective. We aimed to assess, in a working age population including respondents with MDD from 35 countries: (1) if people with MDD anticipate and experience discrimination when trying to find or keep paid employment; (2) if participants in high, middle and lower developed countries differ in these respects; and (3) if discrimination experiences are related to actual employment status (ie, having a paid job or not). Method: Participants in this cross-sectional study (N=834) had a diagnosis of MDD in the previous 12 months. They were interviewed using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12). Analysis of variance and generalised linear mixed models were used to analyse the data. Results: Overall, 62.5% had anticipated and/or experienced discrimination in the work setting. In very high developed countries, almost 60% of respondents had stopped themselves from applying for work, education or training because of anticipated discrimination. Having experienced workplace discrimination was independently related to unemployment. Conclusions: Across different countries and cultures, people with MDD very frequently reported discrimination in the work setting. Effective interventions are needed to enhance work participation in people with MDD, focusing simultaneously on decreasing stigma in the work environment and on decreasing self-discrimination by empowering workers with MDD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere009961
JournalBMJ Open
Volume6
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes

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Major Depressive Disorder
Workplace
Cross-Sectional Studies
Developed Countries
Unemployment
Linear Models
Analysis of Variance
Education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Brouwers, E. P. M., Mathijssen, J., Van Bortel, T., Knifton, L., Wahlbeck, K., Van Audenhove, C., ... Laguado, A. (2016). Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder: A cross-sectional study in 35 countries. BMJ Open, 6(2), [e009961]. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009961

Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder : A cross-sectional study in 35 countries. / Brouwers, E. P M; Mathijssen, J.; Van Bortel, T.; Knifton, L.; Wahlbeck, K.; Van Audenhove, C.; Kadri, N.; Chang, Ch; Goud, B. R.; Ballester, D.; Tófoli, L. F.; Bello, R.; Jorge-Monteiro, M. F.; Zäske, H.; Milacic, I.; Uçok, A.; Bonetto, C.; Lasalvia, A.; Thornicroft, G.; Van Weeghel, J.; Thornicroft, Graham; Van Bortel, Tine; Treacy, Samantha; Brohan, Elaine; Ando, Shuntaro; Rose, Diana; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Aromaa, Esa; Nordmyr, Johanna; Nyqvist, Fredrica; Herberts, Carolina; Lewis, Oliver; Russo, Jasna; Karsay, Dorottya; Maglajlic, Rea; Lasalvia, Antonio; Zoppei, Silvia; Cristofalo, Doriana; Bonetto, Chiara; Goldie, Isabella; Knifton, Lee; Quinn, Neil; Sartorius, Norman; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Scheerder, Gert; Tambuyzer, Else; Hristakeva, Valentina; Germanov, Dimitar; Roelandt, Jean Luc; Bacle, Simon Vasseur; Daumerie, Nicolas; Caria, Aude; Zaske, Harald; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Economou, Marina; Louki, Eleni; Peppou, Lily; Geroulanou, Klio; Harangozo, Judit; Sebes, Julia; Csukly, Gabor; Rossi, Giuseppe; Lanfredi, Mariangela; Pedrini, Laura; Germanavicius, Arunas; Markovskaja, Natalja; Valantinas, Vytis; Van Weeghel, Jaap; Boumans, Jenny; Willemsen, Eleonoor; Plooy, Annette; Duarte, Teresa; Monteiro, Fatima Jorge; Teodorescu, Radu; Radu, Iuliana; Pana, Elena; Hurova, Janka; Leczova, Dita; Svab, Vesna; Konecnik, Nina; Reneses, Blanca; Lopez-Ibor, Juan J.; Palomares, Nerea; Bayon, Camila; Uçok, Alp; Karaday, Gulsah; Glozier, Nicholas; Cockayne, Nicole; Tófoli, Luís Fernando; Costa, Maria Suely Alves; Milev, Roumen; Garrah, Teresa; Jayaram, Geetha; Stuart, Heather; Margetic, Branka Aukst; Groiæ, Petra Folnegovic; Wenigova, Barbora; Pavla, Elepova; Radwan, Doaa Nader; Johnson, Pradeep; Goud, Ramakrishna; Nandesh, N.; Jayaram, Geetha; Suzuki, Yuriko; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Asami; Bernick, Peter; James, Bawo; Ola, Bolanle; Owoeye, Olugbenga; Oshodi, Yewande; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Chee, Kok Yoon; Ali, Norhayati; Kadri, Nadia; Belghazi, Dounia; Anwar, Yassine; Khan, Nashi; Kausar, Rukhsana; Vidojevic, Ivona Milacic; Sumathipala, Athula; Chang, Chih Cheng; Nacef, Fethi; Ouali, Uta; Ouertani, Hayet; Jomli, Rabaa; Ouertani, Abdelhafidh; Kaaniche, Khadija; Bello, Ricardo; Ortega, Manuel; Melone, Arturo; Andréina, María; Marco, Francisco; Ríos, Arturo; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Laguado, Arianna.

In: BMJ Open, Vol. 6, No. 2, e009961, 2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Brouwers, EPM, Mathijssen, J, Van Bortel, T, Knifton, L, Wahlbeck, K, Van Audenhove, C, Kadri, N, Chang, C, Goud, BR, Ballester, D, Tófoli, LF, Bello, R, Jorge-Monteiro, MF, Zäske, H, Milacic, I, Uçok, A, Bonetto, C, Lasalvia, A, Thornicroft, G, Van Weeghel, J, Thornicroft, G, Van Bortel, T, Treacy, S, Brohan, E, Ando, S, Rose, D, Wahlbeck, K, Aromaa, E, Nordmyr, J, Nyqvist, F, Herberts, C, Lewis, O, Russo, J, Karsay, D, Maglajlic, R, Lasalvia, A, Zoppei, S, Cristofalo, D, Bonetto, C, Goldie, I, Knifton, L, Quinn, N, Sartorius, N, Van Audenhove, C, Scheerder, G, Tambuyzer, E, Hristakeva, V, Germanov, D, Roelandt, JL, Bacle, SV, Daumerie, N, Caria, A, Zaske, H, Gaebel, W, Economou, M, Louki, E, Peppou, L, Geroulanou, K, Harangozo, J, Sebes, J, Csukly, G, Rossi, G, Lanfredi, M, Pedrini, L, Germanavicius, A, Markovskaja, N, Valantinas, V, Van Weeghel, J, Boumans, J, Willemsen, E, Plooy, A, Duarte, T, Monteiro, FJ, Teodorescu, R, Radu, I, Pana, E, Hurova, J, Leczova, D, Svab, V, Konecnik, N, Reneses, B, Lopez-Ibor, JJ, Palomares, N, Bayon, C, Uçok, A, Karaday, G, Glozier, N, Cockayne, N, Tófoli, LF, Costa, MSA, Milev, R, Garrah, T, Jayaram, G, Stuart, H, Margetic, BA, Groiæ, PF, Wenigova, B, Pavla, E, Radwan, DN, Johnson, P, Goud, R, Nandesh, N, Jayaram, G, Suzuki, Y, Akiyama, T, Matsunaga, A, Bernick, P, James, B, Ola, B, Owoeye, O, Oshodi, Y, Abdulmalik, J, Chee, KY, Ali, N, Kadri, N, Belghazi, D, Anwar, Y, Khan, N, Kausar, R, Vidojevic, IM, Sumathipala, A, Chang, CC, Nacef, F, Ouali, U, Ouertani, H, Jomli, R, Ouertani, A, Kaaniche, K, Bello, R, Ortega, M, Melone, A, Andréina, M, Marco, F, Ríos, A, Rodríguez, E & Laguado, A 2016, 'Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder: A cross-sectional study in 35 countries', BMJ Open, vol. 6, no. 2, e009961. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009961
Brouwers, E. P M ; Mathijssen, J. ; Van Bortel, T. ; Knifton, L. ; Wahlbeck, K. ; Van Audenhove, C. ; Kadri, N. ; Chang, Ch ; Goud, B. R. ; Ballester, D. ; Tófoli, L. F. ; Bello, R. ; Jorge-Monteiro, M. F. ; Zäske, H. ; Milacic, I. ; Uçok, A. ; Bonetto, C. ; Lasalvia, A. ; Thornicroft, G. ; Van Weeghel, J. ; Thornicroft, Graham ; Van Bortel, Tine ; Treacy, Samantha ; Brohan, Elaine ; Ando, Shuntaro ; Rose, Diana ; Wahlbeck, Kristian ; Aromaa, Esa ; Nordmyr, Johanna ; Nyqvist, Fredrica ; Herberts, Carolina ; Lewis, Oliver ; Russo, Jasna ; Karsay, Dorottya ; Maglajlic, Rea ; Lasalvia, Antonio ; Zoppei, Silvia ; Cristofalo, Doriana ; Bonetto, Chiara ; Goldie, Isabella ; Knifton, Lee ; Quinn, Neil ; Sartorius, Norman ; Van Audenhove, Chantal ; Scheerder, Gert ; Tambuyzer, Else ; Hristakeva, Valentina ; Germanov, Dimitar ; Roelandt, Jean Luc ; Bacle, Simon Vasseur ; Daumerie, Nicolas ; Caria, Aude ; Zaske, Harald ; Gaebel, Wolfgang ; Economou, Marina ; Louki, Eleni ; Peppou, Lily ; Geroulanou, Klio ; Harangozo, Judit ; Sebes, Julia ; Csukly, Gabor ; Rossi, Giuseppe ; Lanfredi, Mariangela ; Pedrini, Laura ; Germanavicius, Arunas ; Markovskaja, Natalja ; Valantinas, Vytis ; Van Weeghel, Jaap ; Boumans, Jenny ; Willemsen, Eleonoor ; Plooy, Annette ; Duarte, Teresa ; Monteiro, Fatima Jorge ; Teodorescu, Radu ; Radu, Iuliana ; Pana, Elena ; Hurova, Janka ; Leczova, Dita ; Svab, Vesna ; Konecnik, Nina ; Reneses, Blanca ; Lopez-Ibor, Juan J. ; Palomares, Nerea ; Bayon, Camila ; Uçok, Alp ; Karaday, Gulsah ; Glozier, Nicholas ; Cockayne, Nicole ; Tófoli, Luís Fernando ; Costa, Maria Suely Alves ; Milev, Roumen ; Garrah, Teresa ; Jayaram, Geetha ; Stuart, Heather ; Margetic, Branka Aukst ; Groiæ, Petra Folnegovic ; Wenigova, Barbora ; Pavla, Elepova ; Radwan, Doaa Nader ; Johnson, Pradeep ; Goud, Ramakrishna ; Nandesh, N. ; Jayaram, Geetha ; Suzuki, Yuriko ; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi ; Matsunaga, Asami ; Bernick, Peter ; James, Bawo ; Ola, Bolanle ; Owoeye, Olugbenga ; Oshodi, Yewande ; Abdulmalik, Jibril ; Chee, Kok Yoon ; Ali, Norhayati ; Kadri, Nadia ; Belghazi, Dounia ; Anwar, Yassine ; Khan, Nashi ; Kausar, Rukhsana ; Vidojevic, Ivona Milacic ; Sumathipala, Athula ; Chang, Chih Cheng ; Nacef, Fethi ; Ouali, Uta ; Ouertani, Hayet ; Jomli, Rabaa ; Ouertani, Abdelhafidh ; Kaaniche, Khadija ; Bello, Ricardo ; Ortega, Manuel ; Melone, Arturo ; Andréina, María ; Marco, Francisco ; Ríos, Arturo ; Rodríguez, Ernesto ; Laguado, Arianna. / Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder : A cross-sectional study in 35 countries. In: BMJ Open. 2016 ; Vol. 6, No. 2.
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title = "Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder: A cross-sectional study in 35 countries",
abstract = "Objective: Whereas employment has been shown to be beneficial for people with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) across different cultures, employers' attitudes have been shown to be negative towards workers with MDD. This may form an important barrier to work participation. Today, little is known about how stigma and discrimination affect work participation of workers with MDD, especially from their own perspective. We aimed to assess, in a working age population including respondents with MDD from 35 countries: (1) if people with MDD anticipate and experience discrimination when trying to find or keep paid employment; (2) if participants in high, middle and lower developed countries differ in these respects; and (3) if discrimination experiences are related to actual employment status (ie, having a paid job or not). Method: Participants in this cross-sectional study (N=834) had a diagnosis of MDD in the previous 12 months. They were interviewed using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12). Analysis of variance and generalised linear mixed models were used to analyse the data. Results: Overall, 62.5{\%} had anticipated and/or experienced discrimination in the work setting. In very high developed countries, almost 60{\%} of respondents had stopped themselves from applying for work, education or training because of anticipated discrimination. Having experienced workplace discrimination was independently related to unemployment. Conclusions: Across different countries and cultures, people with MDD very frequently reported discrimination in the work setting. Effective interventions are needed to enhance work participation in people with MDD, focusing simultaneously on decreasing stigma in the work environment and on decreasing self-discrimination by empowering workers with MDD.",
author = "Brouwers, {E. P M} and J. Mathijssen and {Van Bortel}, T. and L. Knifton and K. Wahlbeck and {Van Audenhove}, C. and N. Kadri and Ch Chang and Goud, {B. R.} and D. Ballester and T{\'o}foli, {L. F.} and R. Bello and Jorge-Monteiro, {M. F.} and H. Z{\"a}ske and I. Milacic and A. U{\cc}ok and C. Bonetto and A. Lasalvia and G. Thornicroft and {Van Weeghel}, J. and Graham Thornicroft and {Van Bortel}, Tine and Samantha Treacy and Elaine Brohan and Shuntaro Ando and Diana Rose and Kristian Wahlbeck and Esa Aromaa and Johanna Nordmyr and Fredrica Nyqvist and Carolina Herberts and Oliver Lewis and Jasna Russo and Dorottya Karsay and Rea Maglajlic and Antonio Lasalvia and Silvia Zoppei and Doriana Cristofalo and Chiara Bonetto and Isabella Goldie and Lee Knifton and Neil Quinn and Norman Sartorius and {Van Audenhove}, Chantal and Gert Scheerder and Else Tambuyzer and Valentina Hristakeva and Dimitar Germanov and Roelandt, {Jean Luc} and Bacle, {Simon Vasseur} and Nicolas Daumerie and Aude Caria and Harald Zaske and Wolfgang Gaebel and Marina Economou and Eleni Louki and Lily Peppou and Klio Geroulanou and Judit Harangozo and Julia Sebes and Gabor Csukly and Giuseppe Rossi and Mariangela Lanfredi and Laura Pedrini and Arunas Germanavicius and Natalja Markovskaja and Vytis Valantinas and {Van Weeghel}, Jaap and Jenny Boumans and Eleonoor Willemsen and Annette Plooy and Teresa Duarte and Monteiro, {Fatima Jorge} and Radu Teodorescu and Iuliana Radu and Elena Pana and Janka Hurova and Dita Leczova and Vesna Svab and Nina Konecnik and Blanca Reneses and Lopez-Ibor, {Juan J.} and Nerea Palomares and Camila Bayon and Alp U{\cc}ok and Gulsah Karaday and Nicholas Glozier and Nicole Cockayne and T{\'o}foli, {Lu{\'i}s Fernando} and Costa, {Maria Suely Alves} and Roumen Milev and Teresa Garrah and Geetha Jayaram and Heather Stuart and Margetic, {Branka Aukst} and Groi{\ae}, {Petra Folnegovic} and Barbora Wenigova and Elepova Pavla and Radwan, {Doaa Nader} and Pradeep Johnson and Ramakrishna Goud and N. Nandesh and Geetha Jayaram and Yuriko Suzuki and Tsuyoshi Akiyama and Asami Matsunaga and Peter Bernick and Bawo James and Bolanle Ola and Olugbenga Owoeye and Yewande Oshodi and Jibril Abdulmalik and Chee, {Kok Yoon} and Norhayati Ali and Nadia Kadri and Dounia Belghazi and Yassine Anwar and Nashi Khan and Rukhsana Kausar and Vidojevic, {Ivona Milacic} and Athula Sumathipala and Chang, {Chih Cheng} and Fethi Nacef and Uta Ouali and Hayet Ouertani and Rabaa Jomli and Abdelhafidh Ouertani and Khadija Kaaniche and Ricardo Bello and Manuel Ortega and Arturo Melone and Mar{\'i}a Andr{\'e}ina and Francisco Marco and Arturo R{\'i}os and Ernesto Rodr{\'i}guez and Arianna Laguado",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009961",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "6",
journal = "BMJ Open",
issn = "2044-6055",
publisher = "BMJ Publishing Group",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Discrimination in the workplace, reported by people with major depressive disorder

T2 - A cross-sectional study in 35 countries

AU - Brouwers, E. P M

AU - Mathijssen, J.

AU - Van Bortel, T.

AU - Knifton, L.

AU - Wahlbeck, K.

AU - Van Audenhove, C.

AU - Kadri, N.

AU - Chang, Ch

AU - Goud, B. R.

AU - Ballester, D.

AU - Tófoli, L. F.

AU - Bello, R.

AU - Jorge-Monteiro, M. F.

AU - Zäske, H.

AU - Milacic, I.

AU - Uçok, A.

AU - Bonetto, C.

AU - Lasalvia, A.

AU - Thornicroft, G.

AU - Van Weeghel, J.

AU - Thornicroft, Graham

AU - Van Bortel, Tine

AU - Treacy, Samantha

AU - Brohan, Elaine

AU - Ando, Shuntaro

AU - Rose, Diana

AU - Wahlbeck, Kristian

AU - Aromaa, Esa

AU - Nordmyr, Johanna

AU - Nyqvist, Fredrica

AU - Herberts, Carolina

AU - Lewis, Oliver

AU - Russo, Jasna

AU - Karsay, Dorottya

AU - Maglajlic, Rea

AU - Lasalvia, Antonio

AU - Zoppei, Silvia

AU - Cristofalo, Doriana

AU - Bonetto, Chiara

AU - Goldie, Isabella

AU - Knifton, Lee

AU - Quinn, Neil

AU - Sartorius, Norman

AU - Van Audenhove, Chantal

AU - Scheerder, Gert

AU - Tambuyzer, Else

AU - Hristakeva, Valentina

AU - Germanov, Dimitar

AU - Roelandt, Jean Luc

AU - Bacle, Simon Vasseur

AU - Daumerie, Nicolas

AU - Caria, Aude

AU - Zaske, Harald

AU - Gaebel, Wolfgang

AU - Economou, Marina

AU - Louki, Eleni

AU - Peppou, Lily

AU - Geroulanou, Klio

AU - Harangozo, Judit

AU - Sebes, Julia

AU - Csukly, Gabor

AU - Rossi, Giuseppe

AU - Lanfredi, Mariangela

AU - Pedrini, Laura

AU - Germanavicius, Arunas

AU - Markovskaja, Natalja

AU - Valantinas, Vytis

AU - Van Weeghel, Jaap

AU - Boumans, Jenny

AU - Willemsen, Eleonoor

AU - Plooy, Annette

AU - Duarte, Teresa

AU - Monteiro, Fatima Jorge

AU - Teodorescu, Radu

AU - Radu, Iuliana

AU - Pana, Elena

AU - Hurova, Janka

AU - Leczova, Dita

AU - Svab, Vesna

AU - Konecnik, Nina

AU - Reneses, Blanca

AU - Lopez-Ibor, Juan J.

AU - Palomares, Nerea

AU - Bayon, Camila

AU - Uçok, Alp

AU - Karaday, Gulsah

AU - Glozier, Nicholas

AU - Cockayne, Nicole

AU - Tófoli, Luís Fernando

AU - Costa, Maria Suely Alves

AU - Milev, Roumen

AU - Garrah, Teresa

AU - Jayaram, Geetha

AU - Stuart, Heather

AU - Margetic, Branka Aukst

AU - Groiæ, Petra Folnegovic

AU - Wenigova, Barbora

AU - Pavla, Elepova

AU - Radwan, Doaa Nader

AU - Johnson, Pradeep

AU - Goud, Ramakrishna

AU - Nandesh, N.

AU - Jayaram, Geetha

AU - Suzuki, Yuriko

AU - Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

AU - Matsunaga, Asami

AU - Bernick, Peter

AU - James, Bawo

AU - Ola, Bolanle

AU - Owoeye, Olugbenga

AU - Oshodi, Yewande

AU - Abdulmalik, Jibril

AU - Chee, Kok Yoon

AU - Ali, Norhayati

AU - Kadri, Nadia

AU - Belghazi, Dounia

AU - Anwar, Yassine

AU - Khan, Nashi

AU - Kausar, Rukhsana

AU - Vidojevic, Ivona Milacic

AU - Sumathipala, Athula

AU - Chang, Chih Cheng

AU - Nacef, Fethi

AU - Ouali, Uta

AU - Ouertani, Hayet

AU - Jomli, Rabaa

AU - Ouertani, Abdelhafidh

AU - Kaaniche, Khadija

AU - Bello, Ricardo

AU - Ortega, Manuel

AU - Melone, Arturo

AU - Andréina, María

AU - Marco, Francisco

AU - Ríos, Arturo

AU - Rodríguez, Ernesto

AU - Laguado, Arianna

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Objective: Whereas employment has been shown to be beneficial for people with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) across different cultures, employers' attitudes have been shown to be negative towards workers with MDD. This may form an important barrier to work participation. Today, little is known about how stigma and discrimination affect work participation of workers with MDD, especially from their own perspective. We aimed to assess, in a working age population including respondents with MDD from 35 countries: (1) if people with MDD anticipate and experience discrimination when trying to find or keep paid employment; (2) if participants in high, middle and lower developed countries differ in these respects; and (3) if discrimination experiences are related to actual employment status (ie, having a paid job or not). Method: Participants in this cross-sectional study (N=834) had a diagnosis of MDD in the previous 12 months. They were interviewed using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12). Analysis of variance and generalised linear mixed models were used to analyse the data. Results: Overall, 62.5% had anticipated and/or experienced discrimination in the work setting. In very high developed countries, almost 60% of respondents had stopped themselves from applying for work, education or training because of anticipated discrimination. Having experienced workplace discrimination was independently related to unemployment. Conclusions: Across different countries and cultures, people with MDD very frequently reported discrimination in the work setting. Effective interventions are needed to enhance work participation in people with MDD, focusing simultaneously on decreasing stigma in the work environment and on decreasing self-discrimination by empowering workers with MDD.

AB - Objective: Whereas employment has been shown to be beneficial for people with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) across different cultures, employers' attitudes have been shown to be negative towards workers with MDD. This may form an important barrier to work participation. Today, little is known about how stigma and discrimination affect work participation of workers with MDD, especially from their own perspective. We aimed to assess, in a working age population including respondents with MDD from 35 countries: (1) if people with MDD anticipate and experience discrimination when trying to find or keep paid employment; (2) if participants in high, middle and lower developed countries differ in these respects; and (3) if discrimination experiences are related to actual employment status (ie, having a paid job or not). Method: Participants in this cross-sectional study (N=834) had a diagnosis of MDD in the previous 12 months. They were interviewed using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12). Analysis of variance and generalised linear mixed models were used to analyse the data. Results: Overall, 62.5% had anticipated and/or experienced discrimination in the work setting. In very high developed countries, almost 60% of respondents had stopped themselves from applying for work, education or training because of anticipated discrimination. Having experienced workplace discrimination was independently related to unemployment. Conclusions: Across different countries and cultures, people with MDD very frequently reported discrimination in the work setting. Effective interventions are needed to enhance work participation in people with MDD, focusing simultaneously on decreasing stigma in the work environment and on decreasing self-discrimination by empowering workers with MDD.

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U2 - 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009961

DO - 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009961

M3 - Article

VL - 6

JO - BMJ Open

JF - BMJ Open

SN - 2044-6055

IS - 2

M1 - e009961

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