Discordant patterns of bacterial translocation markers and implications for innate immune imbalances in schizophrenia

Emily G. Severance, Kristin L. Gressitt, Cassie R. Stallings, Andrea E. Origoni, Sunil Khushalani, F. Markus Leweke, Faith B. Dickerson, Robert H. Yolken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The origin of inflammation in psychiatric disorders is not well understood. The translocation of commensal microbiota across the gastrointestinal barrier can result in a persistent state of low-grade immune activation and/or inflammation. We measured serological surrogate markers of bacterial translocation (soluble CD14 (sCD14) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP)) in two psychiatric cohorts and compared these levels to C-reactive protein (CRP), body mass index (BMI), and food-related and autoimmune antibodies. The two cohorts were composed of the following: (1) n=141 schizophrenia, n=75 bipolar disorder, n=78 controls; (2) n=78 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia, n=38 medicated first-episode schizophrenia. sCD14 seropositivity conferred a 3.1-fold increased odds of association with schizophrenia (multivariate regressions, OR=3.09, p<0.0001) compared to controls. Case-control differences in sCD14 were not matched by LBP. Quantitative levels of LBP, but not sCD14, correlated with BMI in schizophrenia (R2=0.21, p<0.0001). sCD14 and LBP also exhibited some congruency in schizophrenia with both significantly correlated with CRP (R2=0.26-0.27, p<0.0001) and elevated in females compared to males (p<0.01). Antipsychotic treatment generally did not impact sCD14 or LBP levels except for significant correlations, especially sCD14, with gluten antibodies in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia (R2=0.27, p<0.0001). In bipolar disorder, sCD14 levels were significantly correlated with anti-tissue transglutaminase IgG (R2=0.37, p<0.001). In conclusion, these bacterial translocation markers produced discordant and complex patterns of activity, a finding that may reflect an imbalanced, activated innate immune state. Whereas both markers may upregulate following systemic exposure to Gram-negative bacteria, non-lipopolysaccharide-based monocyte activation, autoimmunity and metabolic dysfunction may also contribute to the observed marker profiles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)130-137
Number of pages8
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Volume148
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2013

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Keywords

  • Diet
  • Gut
  • Macrophage
  • Mental illness
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Microbiome
  • Psychosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry

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