Animals learn to anticipate a meal as evidenced by increases in premeal activity. This learned response appears to be independent of the nutrient status of an animal because food-anticipatory activity (FAA) can be seen after entrainment by a highly palatable foodwhenrats remain ad libitum on chow. Mealtime feeding not only induces an increase in activity but also appears to entrain the secretion of various peptides prior to a meal including insulin, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). It is not clear whether these meal-anticipatory changes in peptides are causally associated with FAA. To assess whether FAA and preprandial peptide changes co-occur with meal entrainment using different diets, rats were conditioned to receive a 6-h chow meal, 6-h high-fat meal, or 2 h access of chocolate while ad libitum on chow in the middle of the light cycle. FAA was measured for 4 h prior to mealtime. Rats were then killed at 90, 60, and 30 min prior to mealtime and plasma was collected. Although the chocolate-entrained rats showed comparableFAAwith the nonchocolate-entrained animals, they did not show anticipatory increases in the ghrelin or GLP-1. All entrainment conditions induced a decrease in insulin and an increase in glucose prior to mealtime. These data suggest that separate mechanisms may underlie the preprandial increases in ghrelin and GLP-1 and changes in FAA, insulin, and glucose.
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