Disability as a function of social networks and support in elderly African Americans and whites: The Duke EPESE 1986-1992

C. F. Mendes de Leon, D. T. Gold, T. A. Glass, L. Kaplan, L. K. George

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives. We examined the association of structural and functional aspects of social relationships with change in disability, and the degree to which race modifies these associations. Methods. Data are from a population-based sample of 4,136 African Americans and Whites aged ≥ 65 living in North Carolina. Disability data were collected during seven consecutive yearly interviews and summarized in two outcome measures. Measures of social relationships included five measures representing network size, extent of social interaction, and specific type of relationships, as well as instrumental and emotional support. Weighted proportional odds models were fitted to model disability as a function of baseline social network and support variables, and the interaction of each variable with follow-up time. Results. Network size and social interaction showed significant negative associations with disability risks, which did not vary by race, or as a function of time. Social interaction with friends was associated with a reduced risk for disability, but social interaction with children or relatives was not related to disability. Instrumental support was associated with a significantly increased disability risk, with a greater adverse effect among Whites than African Americans. Emotional support was not associated with disability, bur a protective effect for ADL disability was found after controlling for its intercorrelation with instrumental support. Discussion. The findings provide further evidence for the role of social relationships in the disablement process, although not all types of social relationships may be equally beneficial. Furthermore. these associations may be more complex than simple causal effects. There were few racial differences in the association of social relationships with disability, with the possible exception of instrumental support, which may allude to possible sociocultural differences in the experience of instrumental support exchanges.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Volume56
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Interpersonal Relations
Social Support
African Americans
social support
social network
disability
Activities of Daily Living
interaction
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Interviews
American
Population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Aging
  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

Disability as a function of social networks and support in elderly African Americans and whites : The Duke EPESE 1986-1992. / Mendes de Leon, C. F.; Gold, D. T.; Glass, T. A.; Kaplan, L.; George, L. K.

In: Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, Vol. 56, No. 3, 2001.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{a5d31611a7734034ad4a79c261d5c8d0,
title = "Disability as a function of social networks and support in elderly African Americans and whites: The Duke EPESE 1986-1992",
abstract = "Objectives. We examined the association of structural and functional aspects of social relationships with change in disability, and the degree to which race modifies these associations. Methods. Data are from a population-based sample of 4,136 African Americans and Whites aged ≥ 65 living in North Carolina. Disability data were collected during seven consecutive yearly interviews and summarized in two outcome measures. Measures of social relationships included five measures representing network size, extent of social interaction, and specific type of relationships, as well as instrumental and emotional support. Weighted proportional odds models were fitted to model disability as a function of baseline social network and support variables, and the interaction of each variable with follow-up time. Results. Network size and social interaction showed significant negative associations with disability risks, which did not vary by race, or as a function of time. Social interaction with friends was associated with a reduced risk for disability, but social interaction with children or relatives was not related to disability. Instrumental support was associated with a significantly increased disability risk, with a greater adverse effect among Whites than African Americans. Emotional support was not associated with disability, bur a protective effect for ADL disability was found after controlling for its intercorrelation with instrumental support. Discussion. The findings provide further evidence for the role of social relationships in the disablement process, although not all types of social relationships may be equally beneficial. Furthermore. these associations may be more complex than simple causal effects. There were few racial differences in the association of social relationships with disability, with the possible exception of instrumental support, which may allude to possible sociocultural differences in the experience of instrumental support exchanges.",
author = "{Mendes de Leon}, {C. F.} and Gold, {D. T.} and Glass, {T. A.} and L. Kaplan and George, {L. K.}",
year = "2001",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "56",
journal = "Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences",
issn = "1079-5014",
publisher = "Gerontological Society of America",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Disability as a function of social networks and support in elderly African Americans and whites

T2 - The Duke EPESE 1986-1992

AU - Mendes de Leon, C. F.

AU - Gold, D. T.

AU - Glass, T. A.

AU - Kaplan, L.

AU - George, L. K.

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Objectives. We examined the association of structural and functional aspects of social relationships with change in disability, and the degree to which race modifies these associations. Methods. Data are from a population-based sample of 4,136 African Americans and Whites aged ≥ 65 living in North Carolina. Disability data were collected during seven consecutive yearly interviews and summarized in two outcome measures. Measures of social relationships included five measures representing network size, extent of social interaction, and specific type of relationships, as well as instrumental and emotional support. Weighted proportional odds models were fitted to model disability as a function of baseline social network and support variables, and the interaction of each variable with follow-up time. Results. Network size and social interaction showed significant negative associations with disability risks, which did not vary by race, or as a function of time. Social interaction with friends was associated with a reduced risk for disability, but social interaction with children or relatives was not related to disability. Instrumental support was associated with a significantly increased disability risk, with a greater adverse effect among Whites than African Americans. Emotional support was not associated with disability, bur a protective effect for ADL disability was found after controlling for its intercorrelation with instrumental support. Discussion. The findings provide further evidence for the role of social relationships in the disablement process, although not all types of social relationships may be equally beneficial. Furthermore. these associations may be more complex than simple causal effects. There were few racial differences in the association of social relationships with disability, with the possible exception of instrumental support, which may allude to possible sociocultural differences in the experience of instrumental support exchanges.

AB - Objectives. We examined the association of structural and functional aspects of social relationships with change in disability, and the degree to which race modifies these associations. Methods. Data are from a population-based sample of 4,136 African Americans and Whites aged ≥ 65 living in North Carolina. Disability data were collected during seven consecutive yearly interviews and summarized in two outcome measures. Measures of social relationships included five measures representing network size, extent of social interaction, and specific type of relationships, as well as instrumental and emotional support. Weighted proportional odds models were fitted to model disability as a function of baseline social network and support variables, and the interaction of each variable with follow-up time. Results. Network size and social interaction showed significant negative associations with disability risks, which did not vary by race, or as a function of time. Social interaction with friends was associated with a reduced risk for disability, but social interaction with children or relatives was not related to disability. Instrumental support was associated with a significantly increased disability risk, with a greater adverse effect among Whites than African Americans. Emotional support was not associated with disability, bur a protective effect for ADL disability was found after controlling for its intercorrelation with instrumental support. Discussion. The findings provide further evidence for the role of social relationships in the disablement process, although not all types of social relationships may be equally beneficial. Furthermore. these associations may be more complex than simple causal effects. There were few racial differences in the association of social relationships with disability, with the possible exception of instrumental support, which may allude to possible sociocultural differences in the experience of instrumental support exchanges.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0035029779&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0035029779&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 11316843

AN - SCOPUS:0035029779

VL - 56

JO - Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences

JF - Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences

SN - 1079-5014

IS - 3

ER -