Direct measurement of intratumor dose-rate distributions in experimental xenografts treated with 90Y-labeled radioimmunotherapy

Rulon Mayer, Larry E. Dillehay, Yi Shao, Yong Gang Zhang, Shiyu Song, Richard M. Bartholomew, Daniel G. Mackenson, Jerry R. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Purpose: To measure, quantify, and evaluate the planer dose-rate distribution for human tumor xenografts implanted into mice that are treated with 90Y-labeled monoclonal antibodies or bispecific antibodies and 90Y-labeled haptens. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five LS174t human colon carcinoma tumors grown subcutaneously in nude mice were treated with 90Y by either directly labeled ZCE025 or bispecific ECA001-DBX antibody systems. A simple, quick technique using GAF™ radiochromic medium determined the dose-rate distribution in a plane passing through the tumor center. The dose-rate distribution is generated from exposure to activity situated in one-half of the tumor (0.045 to 0.83 g). Results: Planar dose-rate distributions were obtained from the tumor-xenografs. Planar dose-rate histograms were computed along with the coefficients of variance and skewness of the distributions. The observed dose-rate distributions were quantitatively compared to those calculated for a uniformly distributed activity in a half-ellipsoid of the same volume and approximate shape as the tumor half. The observed dose-rate distributions were usually broader with a more positive coefficient of skewness than the dose-rate distributions calculated from the uniformly active half-ellipsoids. For 90Y, tumor shape plays an important role in determining the minimum tumor dose. For these tumors, the tumor minimum dose-rate is always observed along the edge, usually where the edge curvature is most convex. Larger tumors tended to have broader dose-rate distributions and more positive coefficients of skewness. Exceptions to this trend were associated with dose-rate maxima displaced from the central regions due to activity heterogeneity or tumor size greatly exceeding the range of emission. Calculations for dose rate from the conventional Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) formulation exceeded the average and minimum dose rate derived from radiochromic media. The coefficient of skewness became more positive for increasing time between injection and tumor excision, consistent with the activity evolving into a more uniform aactivity distribution. Conclusion: Using radiochromic media to measure the spatial dose-rate distribution is a valuable method for comparing the dose-rate heterogeneity among experimental tumor xenografts in animals treated with radiolabeled antibodies. Tumor size (relative to the particle range) and changes in activity distribution affect the dose-rate distribution that are reflected by changes in the coefficients of skewness and variation of the dose-rate area histogram. The increase in coefficients of variations and skewness with tumor size and time results from the size of the 90Y beta particle penetration range that either exceeds or is comparable to the tumor dimensions. The minimum dose rate is more dependent, relative to the average and the maximum dose rates, on the curvature of the tumor surface.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)147-157
Number of pages11
JournalInternational journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 30 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • Colon carcinoma
  • Dosimetry
  • Image analysis
  • Radioimmunoglobulin therapy
  • Xenograft
  • Yttrium-90

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


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