In this study, we investigated the expression of activated gelatinase A and membrane-type metalloproteinase (MT-MMP) induced by concanavalin A (ConA) in four highly invasive glioma cell lines (UWR2, UWR3, U251MG, and SNB-19). We also examined gelatinase A and MT-MMP expression in human brain tumor tissues in vivo. Gelatin zymography showed that all four cell lines expressed latent progelatinase A (M(r) 66,000). Activated gelatinase A (M(r) 62,000) was induced by ConA in only UWR2 or UWR3 cells. MT-MMP mRNA was present in all four cell lines prior to ConA treatment, and the relative hybridization signals were 1,0.80, 0.25, and 0.15 in UWR2, UWR3, U251MG, and SNB-19 cells, respectively. These mRNA signals were dramatically increased (2.8-, 5.4-, and 2.2-fold in UWR2, UWR3, and U251MG cells, respectively) following ConA treatment; however, MT-MMP mRNA expression was unchanged in SNB-19 cells. MT- MMP protein was detected in various amounts in the four cell lines, but only after ConA pretreatment. The amount of MT-MMP mRNA was unchanged in SNB-19 after ConA treatment, and the MT-MMP mRNA level in ConA-treated U251MG was lower than in LWR2 and UWR3 without ConA treatment. MT-MMP protein was detected in SNB-19 and U251 cell lines only after ConA treatment. Gelatin zymography of human brain tumor tissues revealed that almost all samples examined contained a latent form of gelatinase A, whereas the activated form of gelatinase A was only seen in metastatic lung adenocarcinomas and malignant astrocytomas, and especially in glioblastomas. MT-MMP mRNA levels were significantly higher in malignant astrocytomas than in low-grade gliomas and normal brain tissues. These results were confirmed by PCR analysis, which showed that MT-MMP mRNA was absent or barely detectable in normal brain white matter but was easily detectable in malignant astrocytomas. Immunohistochemistry of MT-MMP in frozen sections showed that MT-MMP was localized in neoplastic astrocytes of malignant astrocytomas but was undetectable in normal white brain matter. The data indicate that MT-MMP is present in malignant human glial tumors and thai MT-MMP expression correlates with expression and activation of gelatinase A during malignant progression in vivo. A direct correlation between the levels of MT-MMP protein and its transcripts was not found in vitro, suggesting that MT-MMP expression in glioma cell lines might be regulated either at the level of transcription message stability or at posttranscription. Altered MT-MMP expression might contribute, in part, to gelatinase A activation, which in turn facilitates invasion of these tumors.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|State||Published - Jan 15 1996|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research