The beginning of the twenty-first century offered new advances in cancer research, including new knowledge about the tumor microenvironment (TME). Because TMEs provide the niches in which cancer cells, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and immune cells reside, they play a crucial role in cancer cell development, differentiation, survival, and proliferation. Throughout cancer progression, the TME constantly evolves, causing cancer cells to adapt to the new conditions. The heterogeneity of cancer, evidenced by diverse proliferation rates, cellular structures, metabolisms, and gene expressions, presents challenges for cancer treatment despite the advances in research. This chapter discusses how different TMEs lead to specific metabolic adaptations that drive cancer progression.