Dietary behavior is an important lifestyle factor to impact an individual's risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the influence of specific dietary factors on CVD risk for African Americans remains unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,775 participants from Jackson Heart Study (JHS) exam 2 (between 2006 and 2009) who were free of hypertension, diabetes, and CVD at the baseline (between 2001 and 2004). Dietary intakes were documented using a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis. Three major dietary patterns were identified: a "southern", a "fast food", and a "prudent" pattern. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and alcohol status, education level, and physical activity, high "southern" pattern score was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) for high abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (OR: 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-3.0, P = 0.02), hypertension (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9, P = 0.02), diabetes (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9, P = 0.03), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6, P = 0.004). Similar associations were also observed in the "fast food" pattern (P ranges 0.03-0.0001). The "prudent" pattern was significantly associated, in a protective direction, with hypertension (OR: 0.69, 95% CI 0.5-0.9, P = 0.02). In conclusion, dietary patterns, especially the "southern" pattern, identified from a regional specific FFQ in this Deep South African Americans, are correlated with abdominal VAT and cardiometabolic risk factors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Medicine (miscellaneous)