Dietary determinants of cadmium exposure in the Strong Heart Family Study

Pablo Olmedo, Maria Grau-Perez, Amanda Fretts, Maria Tellez-Plaza, Fernando Gil, Fawn Yeh, Jason G. Umans, Kevin A. Francesconi, Walter Goessler, Nora Franceschini, Elisa T. Lee, Lyle G. Best, Shelley A. Cole, Barbara V. Howard, Ana Navas-Acien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Urinary cadmium (Cd) concentrations in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS) participants are higher than in the general US population. This difference is unlikely to be related to tobacco smoking. We evaluated the association of consumption of processed meats and other dietary products with urinary Cd concentrations in the SHFS, a family-based study conducted in American Indian communities. We included 1725 participants with urine Cd concentrations (standardized to urine creatinine) and food frequency questionnaire data grouped in 24 categories, including processed meat. Median (IQR) urinary Cd concentrations were 0.42 (0.20–0.85) μg/g creatinine. The age, sex, smoking, education, center, body mass index, and total kcal adjusted geometric mean ratio (GMR) (95%CI) of urinary cadmium concentrations per IQR increase in each dietary category was 1.16 (1.04–1.29) for processed meat, 1.10 (1.00–1.21) for fries and chips, 0.87 (0.80–0.95) for dairy products, and 0.89 (0.82–0.97) for fruit juices. The results remained similar after further adjustment for the dietary categories associated with urinary Cd in the previous model except for fries and chips, which was no longer statistically significant. These findings revealed the potential importance of processed meat products as a dietary source of cadmium.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)239-246
Number of pages8
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017


  • American Indians
  • Association analysis
  • Cadmium
  • Diet
  • Epidemiology
  • Meat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Toxicology


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