Diet soda consumption and risk of incident end stage renal disease

Casey Rebholz, Morgan Grams, Lyn M. Steffen, Deidra Crews, Cheryl A.M. Anderson, Lydia A. Bazzano, Josef Coresh, Lawrence Appel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background and objectives Diet soda consumption is common in the United States and is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We prospectively analyzed diet soda consumption, assessed by food frequency questionnaire at baseline (1987–1989) and a follow-up examination (1993–1995), and incident ESRD through December 31, 2012 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n=15,368). Results Baseline mean age of participants was 54 years, 55% were female, and 27% were black. The majority of participants (43.5%) consumed <1 glass/wk of diet soda; 17.8% consumed 1–4 glasses/wk; 25.3% consumed 5–7 glasses/wk; and 13.5% consumed >7 glasses/wk. Over a median follow-up of 23 years, 357 incident ESRD cases were observed. Relative to <1 glass/wk of diet soda, consuming 1–4 glasses/wk, 5–7 glasses/wk, and >7 glasses/wk, respectively, was associated with 1.08-times (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 1.55), 1.33-times (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.75), and 1.83-times (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.52) higher risk of ESRD after adjusting for age, sex, race-center, education level, smoking status, physical activity, total caloric intake, eGFR, body mass index category, diabetes, systolic BP, and serum uric acid (P value for trend <0.001). Results were similar after additional adjustment for dietary acid load, diet quality, dietary sodium, dietary fructose, sugar-sweetened beverages, and dietary phosphorus. Risk estimates were similar by body mass index category (P value for interaction = 0.82), but the association between diet soda and ESRD was only significant for those who were overweight or obese at baseline. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was not significantly associated with ESRD in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions Diet soda consumption was associated with higher ESRD risk in this general population sample. Further research is necessary to validate these findings in other study populations and to examine potential mechanisms through which diet soda could impact kidney disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)79-86
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 6 2017

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Chronic Kidney Failure
Diet
Beverages
Confidence Intervals
Glass
Body Mass Index
Dietary Phosphorus
Dietary Sucrose
Dietary Sodium
Kidney Diseases
Energy Intake
Fructose
Uric Acid
Population
Atherosclerosis
Smoking
Exercise
Education
Glucose
Food

Keywords

  • Atherosclerosis
  • Beverages
  • Blood pressure
  • Body mass index
  • Diabetes, mellitus
  • Diet
  • Energy intake
  • Female
  • Follow-up studies
  • Fructose
  • Glomerular filtration rate
  • Glucose
  • Kidney failure, chronic
  • Metabolic syndrome X
  • Motor activity
  • Obesity
  • Overweight
  • Phosphorus, dietary
  • Smoking
  • Sodium, dietary
  • Surveys and questionnaires
  • Sweetening agents
  • United States
  • Uric acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation

Cite this

Diet soda consumption and risk of incident end stage renal disease. / Rebholz, Casey; Grams, Morgan; Steffen, Lyn M.; Crews, Deidra; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Bazzano, Lydia A.; Coresh, Josef; Appel, Lawrence.

In: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 12, No. 1, 06.01.2017, p. 79-86.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background and objectives Diet soda consumption is common in the United States and is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We prospectively analyzed diet soda consumption, assessed by food frequency questionnaire at baseline (1987–1989) and a follow-up examination (1993–1995), and incident ESRD through December 31, 2012 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n=15,368). Results Baseline mean age of participants was 54 years, 55{\%} were female, and 27{\%} were black. The majority of participants (43.5{\%}) consumed <1 glass/wk of diet soda; 17.8{\%} consumed 1–4 glasses/wk; 25.3{\%} consumed 5–7 glasses/wk; and 13.5{\%} consumed >7 glasses/wk. Over a median follow-up of 23 years, 357 incident ESRD cases were observed. Relative to <1 glass/wk of diet soda, consuming 1–4 glasses/wk, 5–7 glasses/wk, and >7 glasses/wk, respectively, was associated with 1.08-times (95{\%} confidence interval [95{\%} CI], 0.75 to 1.55), 1.33-times (95{\%} CI, 1.01 to 1.75), and 1.83-times (95{\%} CI, 1.01 to 2.52) higher risk of ESRD after adjusting for age, sex, race-center, education level, smoking status, physical activity, total caloric intake, eGFR, body mass index category, diabetes, systolic BP, and serum uric acid (P value for trend <0.001). Results were similar after additional adjustment for dietary acid load, diet quality, dietary sodium, dietary fructose, sugar-sweetened beverages, and dietary phosphorus. Risk estimates were similar by body mass index category (P value for interaction = 0.82), but the association between diet soda and ESRD was only significant for those who were overweight or obese at baseline. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was not significantly associated with ESRD in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions Diet soda consumption was associated with higher ESRD risk in this general population sample. Further research is necessary to validate these findings in other study populations and to examine potential mechanisms through which diet soda could impact kidney disease.",
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AU - Grams, Morgan

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AU - Crews, Deidra

AU - Anderson, Cheryl A.M.

AU - Bazzano, Lydia A.

AU - Coresh, Josef

AU - Appel, Lawrence

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N2 - Background and objectives Diet soda consumption is common in the United States and is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We prospectively analyzed diet soda consumption, assessed by food frequency questionnaire at baseline (1987–1989) and a follow-up examination (1993–1995), and incident ESRD through December 31, 2012 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n=15,368). Results Baseline mean age of participants was 54 years, 55% were female, and 27% were black. The majority of participants (43.5%) consumed <1 glass/wk of diet soda; 17.8% consumed 1–4 glasses/wk; 25.3% consumed 5–7 glasses/wk; and 13.5% consumed >7 glasses/wk. Over a median follow-up of 23 years, 357 incident ESRD cases were observed. Relative to <1 glass/wk of diet soda, consuming 1–4 glasses/wk, 5–7 glasses/wk, and >7 glasses/wk, respectively, was associated with 1.08-times (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 1.55), 1.33-times (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.75), and 1.83-times (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.52) higher risk of ESRD after adjusting for age, sex, race-center, education level, smoking status, physical activity, total caloric intake, eGFR, body mass index category, diabetes, systolic BP, and serum uric acid (P value for trend <0.001). Results were similar after additional adjustment for dietary acid load, diet quality, dietary sodium, dietary fructose, sugar-sweetened beverages, and dietary phosphorus. Risk estimates were similar by body mass index category (P value for interaction = 0.82), but the association between diet soda and ESRD was only significant for those who were overweight or obese at baseline. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was not significantly associated with ESRD in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions Diet soda consumption was associated with higher ESRD risk in this general population sample. Further research is necessary to validate these findings in other study populations and to examine potential mechanisms through which diet soda could impact kidney disease.

AB - Background and objectives Diet soda consumption is common in the United States and is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We prospectively analyzed diet soda consumption, assessed by food frequency questionnaire at baseline (1987–1989) and a follow-up examination (1993–1995), and incident ESRD through December 31, 2012 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n=15,368). Results Baseline mean age of participants was 54 years, 55% were female, and 27% were black. The majority of participants (43.5%) consumed <1 glass/wk of diet soda; 17.8% consumed 1–4 glasses/wk; 25.3% consumed 5–7 glasses/wk; and 13.5% consumed >7 glasses/wk. Over a median follow-up of 23 years, 357 incident ESRD cases were observed. Relative to <1 glass/wk of diet soda, consuming 1–4 glasses/wk, 5–7 glasses/wk, and >7 glasses/wk, respectively, was associated with 1.08-times (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 1.55), 1.33-times (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.75), and 1.83-times (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.52) higher risk of ESRD after adjusting for age, sex, race-center, education level, smoking status, physical activity, total caloric intake, eGFR, body mass index category, diabetes, systolic BP, and serum uric acid (P value for trend <0.001). Results were similar after additional adjustment for dietary acid load, diet quality, dietary sodium, dietary fructose, sugar-sweetened beverages, and dietary phosphorus. Risk estimates were similar by body mass index category (P value for interaction = 0.82), but the association between diet soda and ESRD was only significant for those who were overweight or obese at baseline. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was not significantly associated with ESRD in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions Diet soda consumption was associated with higher ESRD risk in this general population sample. Further research is necessary to validate these findings in other study populations and to examine potential mechanisms through which diet soda could impact kidney disease.

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KW - Beverages

KW - Blood pressure

KW - Body mass index

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KW - Female

KW - Follow-up studies

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KW - Glomerular filtration rate

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KW - Kidney failure, chronic

KW - Metabolic syndrome X

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KW - Obesity

KW - Overweight

KW - Phosphorus, dietary

KW - Smoking

KW - Sodium, dietary

KW - Surveys and questionnaires

KW - Sweetening agents

KW - United States

KW - Uric acid

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