Excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) is an important contributor to the progression of atherosclerosis. Inhibition of proliferation can be achieved by endogenously produced and exogenously supplied nitrogen monoxide, commonly known as nitric oxide (NO). We report herein the dichotomous effects of two isomeric families of secondary amines, precursors to the N-nitrosated NO-donors, on HASMC proliferation. The syntheses of these two families were carried out using two equivalents of homologous, aliphatic monoamines and 2,6-difluoro-3-nitrobenzonitrile (2,6-DFNBN, O family) or 2,4-difluoro-5-nitrobenzonitrile (2,4-DFNBN, P family). The secondary amines belonging to the P family inhibited HASMC proliferation at all concentrations, whereas the O family induced HASMC proliferation at low concentrations, and exhibited inhibitory properties at high concentrations. A probable explanation of these behaviors is proposed herein. L-homocysteine (HCY) is known to induce HASMC proliferation at low concentrations (<1 mM) and inhibit HASMC proliferation at higher concentrations (>2.5 mM). Our findings suggest that these two families of amines inhibit cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) to varying extents, which directly results in altered levels of intracellular HCY and consequent changes in HASMC proliferation.
- Human aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation inducers and inhibitors
- Isomeric secondary amines
ASJC Scopus subject areas