Diagnostic criteria for cannabis withdrawal syndrome

David A. Gorelick, Kenneth H. Levin, Marc L. Copersino, Stephen J. Heishman, Fang Liu, Douglas L. Boggs, Deanna L. Kelly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: Cannabis withdrawal occurs in frequent users who quit, but there are no accepted diagnostic criteria for a cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS). This study evaluated diagnostic criteria for CWS proposed in DSM-V and two earlier proposals. Method: A convenience sample of 384 adult, non-treatment-seeking lifetime cannabis smokers provided retrospective self-report data on their " most difficult" quit attempt without formal treatment, which was used in this secondary analysis. Prevalence, time of onset, and peak intensity (5-point Likert scale) for 39 withdrawal symptoms (drawn from the literature) were assessed via computer-administered questionnaire. Subject groups were compared using chi-square or ANOVA. Symptom clustering was evaluated with principal components analysis. Results: 40.9% of subjects met the DSM-V criterion of ≥3 symptoms from a list of 7. There were no associations with sex, race, or type of cannabis preparation used. There were significant positive associations between duration or frequency of cannabis use prior to the quit attempt and experiencing CWS. Subjects with CWS had a significantly shorter duration of abstinence. Alternative syndromal criteria (dropping physical symptoms from DSM-V list; requiring ≥2 or ≥4 symptoms from a list of 11) yielded a similar prevalence of CWS and similar associations with prior cannabis use and relapse. The PCA yielded 12 factors, including some symptom clusters not included in DSM-V. Conclusions: Findings support the concurrent and predictive validity of the proposed DSM-V CWS, but suggest that the list of withdrawal symptoms and number required for diagnosis warrant further evaluation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)141-147
Number of pages7
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume123
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Cannabis
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome
Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Principal Component Analysis
Principal component analysis
Self Report
Cluster Analysis
Analysis of Variance
Recurrence

Keywords

  • Cannabis
  • Diagnostic criteria
  • DSM-V
  • Withdrawal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Gorelick, D. A., Levin, K. H., Copersino, M. L., Heishman, S. J., Liu, F., Boggs, D. L., & Kelly, D. L. (2012). Diagnostic criteria for cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 123(1-3), 141-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.11.007

Diagnostic criteria for cannabis withdrawal syndrome. / Gorelick, David A.; Levin, Kenneth H.; Copersino, Marc L.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Liu, Fang; Boggs, Douglas L.; Kelly, Deanna L.

In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 123, No. 1-3, 01.06.2012, p. 141-147.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gorelick, DA, Levin, KH, Copersino, ML, Heishman, SJ, Liu, F, Boggs, DL & Kelly, DL 2012, 'Diagnostic criteria for cannabis withdrawal syndrome', Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 123, no. 1-3, pp. 141-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.11.007
Gorelick DA, Levin KH, Copersino ML, Heishman SJ, Liu F, Boggs DL et al. Diagnostic criteria for cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2012 Jun 1;123(1-3):141-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.11.007
Gorelick, David A. ; Levin, Kenneth H. ; Copersino, Marc L. ; Heishman, Stephen J. ; Liu, Fang ; Boggs, Douglas L. ; Kelly, Deanna L. / Diagnostic criteria for cannabis withdrawal syndrome. In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2012 ; Vol. 123, No. 1-3. pp. 141-147.
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