Diagnostic criteria and behavior of ovarian seromucinous (endocervical-type mucinous and mixed cell-type) tumors

Atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors, intraepithelial, microinvasive, and invasive carcinomas

Heidi W. Shappell, Maureen A. Riopel, Ann E. Smith Sehdev, Brigitte Maria Ronnett, Robert J Kurman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Ovarian endocervical-type (müllerian) mucinous tumors and tumors composed of a mixture of endocervical-type mucinous, serous, endometrioid, squamous, and indifferent cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm reported to date have been primarily limited to borderline and microinvasive types, with only one report of a disease-related death. The clinicopathologic features of 54 endocervical-type and mixed cell-type mucinous tumors, defined as tumors with papillary architecture resembling serous tumors but containing endocervical-type mucinous epithelium, were evaluated. Thirty-four tumors (64%) were classified as atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors based on the absence of stromal invasion and the absence of micropapillary architecture measuring >5 mm. Five tumors (9%) qualified as intraepithelial carcinoma based on the presence of marked cytologic atypia or a complex cribriform growth pattern involving the epithelium covering the surface of papillae or lining cystic spaces. Eight tumors (15%) with stromal invasion ≤5 mm were classified as microinvasive carcinoma. Seven tumors (13%) with either stromal invasion (five tumors) or micropapillary architecture measuring >5 mm (two tumors) were classified as carcinoma. Sixteen tumors (30%) were bilateral, and endosalpingiosis was identified in 41% of cases. Serous-type differentiation was present in all cases. Of the 29 patients with atypical proliferative tumors, intraepithelial carcinomas, and microinvasive carcinomas for whom follow-up was available, there were no disease-related deaths. In contrast, of the seven patients whose tumors had either stromal invasion or micropapillary architecture >5 mm, two stage III patients died of disease (one with frank invasion and one with a micropapillary tumor that lacked stromal invasion). One other stage III patient with a noninvasive micropapillary carcinoma was alive with disease at 84 months. The remaining four patients (three stage I and one stage III) were alive with no evidence of disease. In summary, most endocervical-type atypical proliferative tumors are stage I and benign. The presence of either intraepithelial carcinoma or microinvasion has no adverse effect on behavior. Rare endocervical-type mucinous tumors demonstrate histologically malignant features and aggressive behavior that warrant designation as carcinoma. As with serous tumors, micropapillary architecture without frank invasion in endocervical-type mucinous tumors is associated with disease recurrence and death when presenting as advanced-stage disease. All the tumors in this study were composed of a heterogeneous population of cells, consisting mainly of serous (ciliated) and endocervical-type mucinous cells. In addition, they all contained endometrioid-type cells, hobnail cells, and indifferent cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm to a varying degree. Accordingly, it appears that tumors that feature endocervical-type mucinous cells are rarely if ever pure but almost invariably of mixed cell type. Despite containing mucinous epithelium, the papillary architecture, serous-type differentiation, association with endosalpingiosis, frequent bilaterality, size, and clinical behavior of endocervical-type mucinous tumors closely resemble serous tumors. We therefore recommend the term "seromucinous" for these tumors, which acknowledges both their serous and mucinous features.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1529-1541
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican Journal of Surgical Pathology
Volume26
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2002

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Carcinoma
Neoplasms
Carcinoma in Situ
Epithelium
Cytoplasm

Keywords

  • Endocervical-type mucinous tumor
  • Müllerian mucinous papillary cystadenoma of borderline malignancy
  • Ovarian neoplasms
  • Seromucinous carcinoma
  • Seromucinous tumor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Cite this

@article{977a5b5f4d2444feae5eee1db384b993,
title = "Diagnostic criteria and behavior of ovarian seromucinous (endocervical-type mucinous and mixed cell-type) tumors: Atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors, intraepithelial, microinvasive, and invasive carcinomas",
abstract = "Ovarian endocervical-type (m{\"u}llerian) mucinous tumors and tumors composed of a mixture of endocervical-type mucinous, serous, endometrioid, squamous, and indifferent cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm reported to date have been primarily limited to borderline and microinvasive types, with only one report of a disease-related death. The clinicopathologic features of 54 endocervical-type and mixed cell-type mucinous tumors, defined as tumors with papillary architecture resembling serous tumors but containing endocervical-type mucinous epithelium, were evaluated. Thirty-four tumors (64{\%}) were classified as atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors based on the absence of stromal invasion and the absence of micropapillary architecture measuring >5 mm. Five tumors (9{\%}) qualified as intraepithelial carcinoma based on the presence of marked cytologic atypia or a complex cribriform growth pattern involving the epithelium covering the surface of papillae or lining cystic spaces. Eight tumors (15{\%}) with stromal invasion ≤5 mm were classified as microinvasive carcinoma. Seven tumors (13{\%}) with either stromal invasion (five tumors) or micropapillary architecture measuring >5 mm (two tumors) were classified as carcinoma. Sixteen tumors (30{\%}) were bilateral, and endosalpingiosis was identified in 41{\%} of cases. Serous-type differentiation was present in all cases. Of the 29 patients with atypical proliferative tumors, intraepithelial carcinomas, and microinvasive carcinomas for whom follow-up was available, there were no disease-related deaths. In contrast, of the seven patients whose tumors had either stromal invasion or micropapillary architecture >5 mm, two stage III patients died of disease (one with frank invasion and one with a micropapillary tumor that lacked stromal invasion). One other stage III patient with a noninvasive micropapillary carcinoma was alive with disease at 84 months. The remaining four patients (three stage I and one stage III) were alive with no evidence of disease. In summary, most endocervical-type atypical proliferative tumors are stage I and benign. The presence of either intraepithelial carcinoma or microinvasion has no adverse effect on behavior. Rare endocervical-type mucinous tumors demonstrate histologically malignant features and aggressive behavior that warrant designation as carcinoma. As with serous tumors, micropapillary architecture without frank invasion in endocervical-type mucinous tumors is associated with disease recurrence and death when presenting as advanced-stage disease. All the tumors in this study were composed of a heterogeneous population of cells, consisting mainly of serous (ciliated) and endocervical-type mucinous cells. In addition, they all contained endometrioid-type cells, hobnail cells, and indifferent cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm to a varying degree. Accordingly, it appears that tumors that feature endocervical-type mucinous cells are rarely if ever pure but almost invariably of mixed cell type. Despite containing mucinous epithelium, the papillary architecture, serous-type differentiation, association with endosalpingiosis, frequent bilaterality, size, and clinical behavior of endocervical-type mucinous tumors closely resemble serous tumors. We therefore recommend the term {"}seromucinous{"} for these tumors, which acknowledges both their serous and mucinous features.",
keywords = "Endocervical-type mucinous tumor, M{\"u}llerian mucinous papillary cystadenoma of borderline malignancy, Ovarian neoplasms, Seromucinous carcinoma, Seromucinous tumor",
author = "Shappell, {Heidi W.} and Riopel, {Maureen A.} and {Smith Sehdev}, {Ann E.} and Ronnett, {Brigitte Maria} and Kurman, {Robert J}",
year = "2002",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1097/00000478-200212000-00001",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "26",
pages = "1529--1541",
journal = "American Journal of Surgical Pathology",
issn = "0147-5185",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Diagnostic criteria and behavior of ovarian seromucinous (endocervical-type mucinous and mixed cell-type) tumors

T2 - Atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors, intraepithelial, microinvasive, and invasive carcinomas

AU - Shappell, Heidi W.

AU - Riopel, Maureen A.

AU - Smith Sehdev, Ann E.

AU - Ronnett, Brigitte Maria

AU - Kurman, Robert J

PY - 2002/12

Y1 - 2002/12

N2 - Ovarian endocervical-type (müllerian) mucinous tumors and tumors composed of a mixture of endocervical-type mucinous, serous, endometrioid, squamous, and indifferent cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm reported to date have been primarily limited to borderline and microinvasive types, with only one report of a disease-related death. The clinicopathologic features of 54 endocervical-type and mixed cell-type mucinous tumors, defined as tumors with papillary architecture resembling serous tumors but containing endocervical-type mucinous epithelium, were evaluated. Thirty-four tumors (64%) were classified as atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors based on the absence of stromal invasion and the absence of micropapillary architecture measuring >5 mm. Five tumors (9%) qualified as intraepithelial carcinoma based on the presence of marked cytologic atypia or a complex cribriform growth pattern involving the epithelium covering the surface of papillae or lining cystic spaces. Eight tumors (15%) with stromal invasion ≤5 mm were classified as microinvasive carcinoma. Seven tumors (13%) with either stromal invasion (five tumors) or micropapillary architecture measuring >5 mm (two tumors) were classified as carcinoma. Sixteen tumors (30%) were bilateral, and endosalpingiosis was identified in 41% of cases. Serous-type differentiation was present in all cases. Of the 29 patients with atypical proliferative tumors, intraepithelial carcinomas, and microinvasive carcinomas for whom follow-up was available, there were no disease-related deaths. In contrast, of the seven patients whose tumors had either stromal invasion or micropapillary architecture >5 mm, two stage III patients died of disease (one with frank invasion and one with a micropapillary tumor that lacked stromal invasion). One other stage III patient with a noninvasive micropapillary carcinoma was alive with disease at 84 months. The remaining four patients (three stage I and one stage III) were alive with no evidence of disease. In summary, most endocervical-type atypical proliferative tumors are stage I and benign. The presence of either intraepithelial carcinoma or microinvasion has no adverse effect on behavior. Rare endocervical-type mucinous tumors demonstrate histologically malignant features and aggressive behavior that warrant designation as carcinoma. As with serous tumors, micropapillary architecture without frank invasion in endocervical-type mucinous tumors is associated with disease recurrence and death when presenting as advanced-stage disease. All the tumors in this study were composed of a heterogeneous population of cells, consisting mainly of serous (ciliated) and endocervical-type mucinous cells. In addition, they all contained endometrioid-type cells, hobnail cells, and indifferent cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm to a varying degree. Accordingly, it appears that tumors that feature endocervical-type mucinous cells are rarely if ever pure but almost invariably of mixed cell type. Despite containing mucinous epithelium, the papillary architecture, serous-type differentiation, association with endosalpingiosis, frequent bilaterality, size, and clinical behavior of endocervical-type mucinous tumors closely resemble serous tumors. We therefore recommend the term "seromucinous" for these tumors, which acknowledges both their serous and mucinous features.

AB - Ovarian endocervical-type (müllerian) mucinous tumors and tumors composed of a mixture of endocervical-type mucinous, serous, endometrioid, squamous, and indifferent cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm reported to date have been primarily limited to borderline and microinvasive types, with only one report of a disease-related death. The clinicopathologic features of 54 endocervical-type and mixed cell-type mucinous tumors, defined as tumors with papillary architecture resembling serous tumors but containing endocervical-type mucinous epithelium, were evaluated. Thirty-four tumors (64%) were classified as atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors based on the absence of stromal invasion and the absence of micropapillary architecture measuring >5 mm. Five tumors (9%) qualified as intraepithelial carcinoma based on the presence of marked cytologic atypia or a complex cribriform growth pattern involving the epithelium covering the surface of papillae or lining cystic spaces. Eight tumors (15%) with stromal invasion ≤5 mm were classified as microinvasive carcinoma. Seven tumors (13%) with either stromal invasion (five tumors) or micropapillary architecture measuring >5 mm (two tumors) were classified as carcinoma. Sixteen tumors (30%) were bilateral, and endosalpingiosis was identified in 41% of cases. Serous-type differentiation was present in all cases. Of the 29 patients with atypical proliferative tumors, intraepithelial carcinomas, and microinvasive carcinomas for whom follow-up was available, there were no disease-related deaths. In contrast, of the seven patients whose tumors had either stromal invasion or micropapillary architecture >5 mm, two stage III patients died of disease (one with frank invasion and one with a micropapillary tumor that lacked stromal invasion). One other stage III patient with a noninvasive micropapillary carcinoma was alive with disease at 84 months. The remaining four patients (three stage I and one stage III) were alive with no evidence of disease. In summary, most endocervical-type atypical proliferative tumors are stage I and benign. The presence of either intraepithelial carcinoma or microinvasion has no adverse effect on behavior. Rare endocervical-type mucinous tumors demonstrate histologically malignant features and aggressive behavior that warrant designation as carcinoma. As with serous tumors, micropapillary architecture without frank invasion in endocervical-type mucinous tumors is associated with disease recurrence and death when presenting as advanced-stage disease. All the tumors in this study were composed of a heterogeneous population of cells, consisting mainly of serous (ciliated) and endocervical-type mucinous cells. In addition, they all contained endometrioid-type cells, hobnail cells, and indifferent cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm to a varying degree. Accordingly, it appears that tumors that feature endocervical-type mucinous cells are rarely if ever pure but almost invariably of mixed cell type. Despite containing mucinous epithelium, the papillary architecture, serous-type differentiation, association with endosalpingiosis, frequent bilaterality, size, and clinical behavior of endocervical-type mucinous tumors closely resemble serous tumors. We therefore recommend the term "seromucinous" for these tumors, which acknowledges both their serous and mucinous features.

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KW - Müllerian mucinous papillary cystadenoma of borderline malignancy

KW - Ovarian neoplasms

KW - Seromucinous carcinoma

KW - Seromucinous tumor

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