Diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in adults: An official ATS/JRS/ALAT clinical practice guideline

American Thoracic Society, Japanese Respiratory Society, and Asociación Latinoamericana de Tórax

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: This guideline addresses the diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). It represents a collaborative effort among the American Thoracic Society, Japanese Respiratory Society, and Asociación Latinoamericana del Tórax. Methods: Systematic reviews were performed for six questions. Theevidencewas discussed, andthenrecommendations were formulated by amultidisciplinary committee of experts in the field of interstitial lung disease and HP using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach. Results: The guideline committee defined HP, and clinical, radiographic, andpathological features were described.HPwas classified into nonfibrotic and fibrotic phenotypes. There was limited evidence that was directly applicable to all questions. The need for a thorough history and a validated questionnaire to identify potential exposureswas agreed on. Serum IgG testing against potential antigens associated with HP was suggested to identify potential exposures. For patients with nonfibrotic HP, a recommendation was made in favor of obtaining bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid for lymphocyte cellular analysis, and suggestions for transbronchial lung biopsy and surgical lung biopsywere also made. For patients with fibrotic HP, suggestionsweremade in favor of obtaining BAL for lymphocyte cellular analysis, transbronchial lung cryobiopsy, and surgical lung biopsy. Diagnostic criteria were established, and a diagnostic algorithmwas created by expert consensus. Knowledge gaps were identified as future research directions. Conclusions: The guideline committee developed a systematic approach to the diagnosis of HP. The approach should be reevaluated as new evidence accumulates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E36-E69
JournalAmerican journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
Volume202
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2020

Keywords

  • Fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  • Interstitial lung disease
  • Nonfibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  • Pulmonary fibrosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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