TOS represents a spectrum of disorders encompassing four related syndromes: arterial compression, venous compression, neurogenic compression, and a poorly defined pain syndrome. Patients can present with signs of arterial insufficiency, venous obstruction, painless wasting of intrinsic hand muscles, and pain. History and physical examination are the most important diagnostic studies, and radiographs of the chest and cervical spine and electromyography/nerve conduction studies are useful to identify other causes of pain and disability. Surgical intervention is indicated for patients failing nonoperative maneuvers and can usually yield satisfactory results. TOS may also be the most underrated, overlooked, and misdiagnosed, and the most important and difficult to manage peripheral nerve compression in the upper extremity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology