Diagnosis and treatment of presumptive pyelonephritis in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)

Carlos R. Sanchez, Suzan Murray, Richard J. Montali, Lucy H. Spelman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


A 37-yr-old female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) presented with anorexia, restlessness, and dark-colored urine. Urinalyses showed hematuria, leukocyturia, isosthenuria, proteinuria, granular casts, and no calcium oxalate crystals. Bloodwork revealed azotemia. Urine culture revealed a pure growth of Streptococcus zooepidemicus resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim but susceptible to cephalosporins. A presumptive diagnosis of pyelonephritis was made based on bloodwork, urinalysis, and urine culture. The animal was treated with intravenous ceftiofur, and intravenous and per rectum fluids were given for hydration. The elephant's attitude and appetite returned to normal, the abnormal blood parameters resolved, and urinary calcium oxalate crystals reappeared after treatment, supporting presumptive diagnosis. Follow-up ultrasonography revealed an abnormal outline of both kidneys with parenchymal hyperechogenicity and multiple uterine leiomyomas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)397-399
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2004


  • Asian elephant
  • Calcium oxalate crystals
  • Elephas maximus
  • Hematuria
  • Pyelonephritis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)


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