Diagnosis and prediction of neuroendocrine liver metastases: A protocol of six systematic reviews

Stephan Arigoni, Stefan Ignjatovic, Patrizia Sager, Jonas Betschart, Tobias Buerge, Josephine Wachtl, Christoph Tschuor, Perparim Limani, Milo A. Puhan, Mickael Lesurtel, Dimitri A. Raptis, Stefan Breitenstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Patients with hepatic metastases from neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) benefit from an early diagnosis, which is crucial for the optimal therapy and management. Diagnostic procedures include morphological and functional imaging, identification of biomarkers, and biopsy. Objective: The aim of six systematic reviews discussed in this study is to assess the predictive value of Ki67 index and other biomarkers, to compare the diagnostic accuracy of morphological and functional imaging, and to define the role of biopsy in the diagnosis and prediction of neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases. Methods: An objective group of librarians will provide an electronic search strategy to examine the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects). There will be no restriction concerning language and publication date. The qualitative and quantitative synthesis of the systematic review will be conducted with randomized controlled trials (RCT), prospective and retrospective comparative cohort studies, and case-control studies. Case series will be collected in a separate database and only used for descriptive purposes. Results: This study is ongoing and presents a protocol of six systematic reviews to elucidate the role of histopathological and biochemical markers, biopsies of the primary tumor and the metastases as well as morphological and functional imaging modalities for the diagnosis and prediction of neuroendocrine liver metastases. Conclusions: These systematic reviews will assess the value and accuracy of several diagnostic modalities in patients with NET liver metastases, and will provide a basis for the development of clinical practice guidelines. Trial Registration: The systematic reviews have been prospectively registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42012002644; http://www.metaxis.com/prospero/full-doc.asp?RecordID=2644 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6LzCLd5sF), CRD42012002647; http://www.metaxis.com/prospero/full-doc.asp?RecordID=2647 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6LzCRnZnO), CRD42012002648; http://www.metaxis. com/prospero/full-doc.asp?RecordID=2648 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6LzCVeuVR), CRD42012002649; http://www.metaxis.com/ prospero/full-doc.asp?RecordID=2649 (Archived by WebCite at http://www. webcitation.org/6LzCZzZWU), CRD42012002650; http://www.metaxis.com/prospero/ full-doc.asp?RecordID=2650 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/ 6LzDPhGb8), CRD42012002651; http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display-record. asp?ID=CRD42012002651#.UrMglPRDuVo (Archived by WebCite at http://www. webcitation.org/6LzClCNff).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere60
JournalJournal of Medical Internet Research
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Biochemical markers
  • Functional imaging
  • Genetic signatures
  • Ki67
  • Liver metastases
  • Mitotic count
  • Morphological imaging
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (NET)
  • Systematic review
  • Tumor cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics


Dive into the research topics of 'Diagnosis and prediction of neuroendocrine liver metastases: A protocol of six systematic reviews'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this