Diabetes, oxidative stress, molecular mechanism, and cardiovascular disease - An overview

Vaithinathan Selvaraju, Mandip Joshi, Sumanth Suresh, Juan A. Sanchez, Nilanjana Maulik, Gautam Maulik

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

In recent years, diabetes and its associated complications have come to represent a major public health concern. It is a complex disease characterized by multiple metabolic derangements and is known to impair cardiac function by disrupting the balance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants at the cellular level. The subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accompanying oxidative stress are hallmarks of the molecular mechanisms responsible for cardiovascular disease. Among several oxidative stress-mediated mechanisms that have been proposed, ROS-mediated oxidative stress has received the most attention. ROS have been shown to interact with proteins, lipids, and DNA, causing damage to the cellular macromolecules and subsequently, deterioration of cellular function. Induction of thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) gene expression has been demonstrated to protect the diabetic myocardium from dysfunction by reducing oxidative stress and enhancing the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The failure of antioxidants to consistently demonstrate clinical benefit necessitates further investigation of the role of oxidative stress in diabetes-mediated cardiovascular disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)330-335
Number of pages6
JournalToxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Volume22
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2012
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Oxidative stress
  • cardiovascular disease
  • diabetes
  • hyperglycemia
  • reactive oxygen species

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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