Developmental dyslexia in women: Neuropathological findings in three patients

Peter Humphreys, Walter E. Kaufmann, Albert M. Galaburda

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Brains from male cases with dyslexia show symmetry of the planum temporale and predominantly left‐sided cerebrocortical microdysgenesis. We now report on three women with dyslexia. In all brains, the planum temporale was again symmetrical. Also, in two of the brains, multiple foci of cerebrocortical glial scarring were present. In both women, many of the scars were myelinated, suggesting origination during late intrauterine or early postnatal life. In one, scars were mainly left perisylvian and involved portions of the vascular border zone of the temporal cortex. In the other, scars were more numerous and occurred in the border zone of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries symmetrically. All three cases showed to a variable extent brain warts, molecular layer ectopias, and focal architectonic dysplasia identical to those seen in the male cases. Two women had primary brain neoplasms, an oligodendroglioma and a low‐grade astrocytoma, respectively, and two women showed small angiomas. Reexamination of previously reported male cases disclosed one with myelinated glial scars. Two control brains with asymmetrical plana temporale showed myelinated glial scars as well. The significance of the anatomical findings is discussed, and possible etiological factors are considered with known effects of autoimmune diseases on the nervous system.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)727-738
    Number of pages12
    JournalAnnals of neurology
    Issue number6
    StatePublished - Dec 1990

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Neurology
    • Clinical Neurology

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