The authors report on the incidence of myopia in a large group of premature infants with birth weights of less than 1251 g followed as part of the multicenter study of Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity. None of the eyes reported here underwent cryotherapy. Eyes were refracted using cycloplegic retinoscopy at 3 months (n = 2916), 12 months (n = 2626), and 24 months (n = 961 at 5 of the 23 centers) after term. Myopia was observed in approximately 20% of the children at each test age. The percentage of high myopia (>5 diopters) doubled from 2% to 4.6% between 3 and 12 months and remained stable thereafter. Lower birth weight and increasing severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were strong predictors of myopia and high myopia. In addition, anisometropia, astigmatism, and the presence of posterior pole residua from ROP also were associated with a higher incidence of myopia and high myopia.
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