Development of a valid, cost-effective laparoscopic training program

G. L. Adrales, U. B. Chu, J. D. Hoskins, D. B. Witzke, A. E. Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Practical programs for training and evaluating surgeons in laparoscopy are needed to keep pace with demand for minimally invasive surgery. Methods: At the University of Kentucky five inexpensive simulations have been developed to train and assess surgical residents. Residents are videotaped performing laparoscopic procedures on models. Five surgeons assess the taped performances on 4 global skills. Results: Creating mechanical models reduces training costs. Trainees agreed procedures were well represented by the simulations. Blinded assessment of performances showed high interrater agreement and correlated with the trainees' level of experience. Nonclinician evaluations on checklists correlated with evaluations by surgeons. Conclusions: Inexpensive simulations of laparoscopic appendectomy, cholecystectomy, inguinal herniorrhaphy, bowel enterotomy, and splenectomy enable surgical residents to practice laparoscopic skills safely. Obtaining masked, objective, and independent evaluations of basic skills in laparoscopic surgery can assist in reliable assessment of surgical trainees. The simulations described can anchor an innovative educational program during residency for training and assessment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)157-163
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican journal of surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Assess
  • Laparoscopy
  • Medical education
  • Minimally invasive surgery
  • Simulation
  • Surgical training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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