Development of a refined tenocyte differentiation culture technique for tendon tissue engineering

Yiwei Qiu, Xiao Wang, Yaonan Zhang, Andrew J. Carr, Liwei Zhu, Zhidao Xia, Afsie Sabokbar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


We have established that human tenocytes can differentiate in the absence of exogenous fetal bovine serum (FBS) but in the presence of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3). The extent of tenocyte differentiation was assessed by examining cell survival, collagen synthesis, cell morphology and expression of tenocyte differentiation markers such as scleraxis (Scx), tenomodulin (Tnmd), collagen type I (Col-I) and decorin (Dcn). Our results indicate that 50 ng/ml IGF-1 and 10 ng/ml TGF-β3 (in the absence of FBS) were capable of maintaining in vitro human tenocyte survival in 14-day cultures. The extent of collagen synthesis and messenger ribonucleic acid expression of Scx, Tnmd, Col-I and Dcn were significantly upregulated in response to IGF-1 and TGF-β3. These findings have shown for the first time that human tenocytes can be maintained in long-term culture, in serum-free conditions, making this approach a suitable one for the purpose of tendon tissue engineering.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)27-36
Number of pages10
JournalCells Tissues Organs
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Differentiation
  • Growth factors
  • Tendon
  • Tissue engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Histology


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