Development and validation of the asian version of the oucher: A pain intensity scale for children

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The present study was designed to develop and test the validity of the Asian version of the Oucher pain intensity scale, with color photographs of Taiwanese children as the pain intensity cues. A series of 3 studies were conducted. The aim of the first study was to create male and female versions of the Asian Oucher poster. Each poster consisted of 6 color photographs of children's faces, ranging from "no hurt at all" (scored as 0) to the "biggest hurt you could ever have" (scored as 5). In the second study, 220 children aged 3 to 6 years were recruited to examine the content validity. Children who were able to complete a Piagetian seriation task were asked to choose the sequence of 6 photographs. Photo sequences were adjusted according to the study findings. The third study was conducted to examine the convergent, discriminate, and clinical validity for children who are at different levels of pain intensity. In total, 111 children aged 3 to 10 years old who were experiencing surgical pain were recruited. The construct validity of the Asian Oucher was supported.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)526-534
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Pain
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Children
  • Development
  • Measure
  • Pain intensity
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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