Determining Thresholds for Three Indices of Autoregulation to Identify the Lower Limit of Autoregulation during Cardiac Surgery∗

Xiuyun Liu, Kei Akiyoshi, Mitsunori Nakano, Ken Brady, Brian Bush, Rohan Nadkarni, Archana Venkataraman, Raymond C. Koehler, Jennifer K. Lee, Charles W. Hogue, Marek Czosnyka, Peter Smielewski, Charles H. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Monitoring cerebral autoregulation may help identify the lower limit of autoregulation in individual patients. Mean arterial blood pressure below lower limit of autoregulation appears to be a risk factor for postoperative acute kidney injury. Cerebral autoregulation can be monitored in real time using correlation approaches. However, the precise thresholds for different cerebral autoregulation indexes that identify the lower limit of autoregulation are unknown. We identified thresholds for intact autoregulation in patients during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery and examined the relevance of these thresholds to postoperative acute kidney injury. DESIGN: A single-center retrospective analysis. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Data from 59 patients was used to determine precise cerebral autoregulation thresholds for identification of the lower limit of autoregulation. These thresholds were validated in a larger cohort of 226 patients. METHODS AND MAIN RESULTS: Invasive mean arterial blood pressure, cerebral blood flow velocities, regional cortical oxygen saturation, and total hemoglobin were recorded simultaneously. Three cerebral autoregulation indices were calculated, including mean flow index, cerebral oximetry index, and hemoglobin volume index. Cerebral autoregulation curves for the three indices were plotted, and thresholds for each index were used to generate threshold- and index-specific lower limit of autoregulations. A reference lower limit of autoregulation could be identified in 59 patients by plotting cerebral blood flow velocity against mean arterial blood pressure to generate gold-standard Lassen curves. The lower limit of autoregulations defined at each threshold were compared with the gold-standard lower limit of autoregulation determined from Lassen curves. The results identified the following thresholds: mean flow index (0.45), cerebral oximetry index (0.35), and hemoglobin volume index (0.3). We then calculated the product of magnitude and duration of mean arterial blood pressure less than lower limit of autoregulation in a larger cohort of 226 patients. When using the lower limit of autoregulations identified by the optimal thresholds above, mean arterial blood pressure less than lower limit of autoregulation was greater in patients with acute kidney injury than in those without acute kidney injury. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified thresholds of intact and impaired cerebral autoregulation for three indices and showed that mean arterial blood pressure below lower limit of autoregulation is a risk factor for acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)650-660
Number of pages11
JournalCritical care medicine
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • acute kidney injury
  • cardiopulmonary bypass surgery
  • cerebral autoregulation
  • cerebral oximetry index
  • lower limit of autoregulation
  • near-infrared spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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