Determinants of mental health outcomes among people with and without diabetes during the COVID-19 outbreak in the Arab Gulf Region

Mohammed E. Al-Sofiani, Sarah Albunyan, Abdullah M. Alguwaihes, Rita R. Kalyani, Sherita Hill Golden, Assim Alfadda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Aims: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with depression and anxiety among people with and without diabetes during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study collecting demographic and mental health data from 2166 participants living in the Arab Gulf region (568 with diabetes, 1598 without diabetes). Depression and anxiety were assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, respectively. Results: The prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms were 61% and 45%, in people with diabetes (PWD) and 62% and 44%, respectively, in people without diabetes. PWD who have had their diabetes visit canceled by the clinic were more likely to report depression and anxiety symptoms than those without diabetes (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.37 [1.02, 1.84] and 1.37 [1.04, 1.80], for depression and anxiety; respectively). PWD who had no method of telecommunication with their health care providers (HCP) during the pandemic, PWD with A1C of ≥ 10%, women, employees (particularly HCPs), students, unmarried individuals, and those with lower income were more likely to report depression and/or anxiety symptoms (all P < 0.01). Fear of acquiring the coronavirus infection; running out of diabetes medications; or requiring hospitalization for hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, or diabetic ketoacidosis; and lack of telecommunication with HCPs were all associated with significantly higher odds of having depression and anxiety symptoms among PWD. Conclusions: The remarkably high prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among subgroups of PWD, calls for urgent public health policies to address mental health during the pandemic and reestablish health care access for PWD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of diabetes
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • anxiety
  • COVID-19
  • depression
  • diabetes
  • mental health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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