Detection of Leukocyte Activation in Pigs with Neurologic Decompression Sickness

Paul A Nyquist, Edward J. Dick, Thomas B. Buttolph, Diana J. Temple

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: In a porcine model of neurological decompression sickness (DCS), perivascular leukocyte activation was a consistent finding in biopsies of associated cutaneous DCS. This prompted examination of other organs for similar changes; multifocal leukocyte activation was found in the lungs (pneumonitis) and liver (hepatitis). Hypothesis: DCS in pigs induces leukocyte aggregation and activation in the liver and lungs. Methods: Male Yorkshire swine, trained to run on a modified treadmill, were compressed to 200 ft of seawater (fsw) in a dry, air-filled compression chamber. Decompression varied according to the profile under study. Results: In 106 pigs, evidence for association of leukocyte aggregation and activation with the clinical diagnosis of neurologic DCS was sought. The incidence of pneumonitis (20/68, 29% with DCS; 4/38, 10% without DCS) and hepatitis (23/68, 33% with DCS; 4/38, 10% without DCS) were strongly correlated with the incidence of neurologic DCS via Pearson Chi-squared analysis (p = 0.026 pneumonitis and p = 0.008 hepatitis. Additionally, Kruskal-Wallis rank analysis for numbers of organs involved and incidence of neurologic DCS showed a strong correlation between the increasing occurrence of neurologic DCS and the involvement of both the liver and lungs (p = 0.004). Conclusions. The results imply that, at least in pigs, DCS induces leukocyte aggregation and activation in the liver and lungs. These organs are not normally considered targets of DCS. Leukocyte aggregation in these organs may be related to their roles as highly perfused organs. Leukocyte aggregation may be a marker for DCS, providing further evidence for wider, systemic effects of DCS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)211-214
Number of pages4
JournalAviation Space and Environmental Medicine
Volume75
Issue number3 SEC. I
StatePublished - Mar 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Decompression Sickness
Nervous System
Leukocytes
Swine
Agglomeration
Liver
Chemical activation
Exercise equipment
Biopsy
Seawater
Hepatitis
Lung
Pneumonia
Compaction
Association reactions
Incidence
Neurological Models
Air
Decompression

Keywords

  • Decompression sickness
  • Leukocyte aggregation
  • Neutrophils
  • Organ perfusion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Detection of Leukocyte Activation in Pigs with Neurologic Decompression Sickness. / Nyquist, Paul A; Dick, Edward J.; Buttolph, Thomas B.; Temple, Diana J.

In: Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 75, No. 3 SEC. I, 03.2004, p. 211-214.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nyquist, Paul A ; Dick, Edward J. ; Buttolph, Thomas B. ; Temple, Diana J. / Detection of Leukocyte Activation in Pigs with Neurologic Decompression Sickness. In: Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine. 2004 ; Vol. 75, No. 3 SEC. I. pp. 211-214.
@article{7262c41e56324536bb87e5ba1d42407c,
title = "Detection of Leukocyte Activation in Pigs with Neurologic Decompression Sickness",
abstract = "Background: In a porcine model of neurological decompression sickness (DCS), perivascular leukocyte activation was a consistent finding in biopsies of associated cutaneous DCS. This prompted examination of other organs for similar changes; multifocal leukocyte activation was found in the lungs (pneumonitis) and liver (hepatitis). Hypothesis: DCS in pigs induces leukocyte aggregation and activation in the liver and lungs. Methods: Male Yorkshire swine, trained to run on a modified treadmill, were compressed to 200 ft of seawater (fsw) in a dry, air-filled compression chamber. Decompression varied according to the profile under study. Results: In 106 pigs, evidence for association of leukocyte aggregation and activation with the clinical diagnosis of neurologic DCS was sought. The incidence of pneumonitis (20/68, 29{\%} with DCS; 4/38, 10{\%} without DCS) and hepatitis (23/68, 33{\%} with DCS; 4/38, 10{\%} without DCS) were strongly correlated with the incidence of neurologic DCS via Pearson Chi-squared analysis (p = 0.026 pneumonitis and p = 0.008 hepatitis. Additionally, Kruskal-Wallis rank analysis for numbers of organs involved and incidence of neurologic DCS showed a strong correlation between the increasing occurrence of neurologic DCS and the involvement of both the liver and lungs (p = 0.004). Conclusions. The results imply that, at least in pigs, DCS induces leukocyte aggregation and activation in the liver and lungs. These organs are not normally considered targets of DCS. Leukocyte aggregation in these organs may be related to their roles as highly perfused organs. Leukocyte aggregation may be a marker for DCS, providing further evidence for wider, systemic effects of DCS.",
keywords = "Decompression sickness, Leukocyte aggregation, Neutrophils, Organ perfusion",
author = "Nyquist, {Paul A} and Dick, {Edward J.} and Buttolph, {Thomas B.} and Temple, {Diana J.}",
year = "2004",
month = "3",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "75",
pages = "211--214",
journal = "Aerospace medicine and human performance",
issn = "2375-6314",
publisher = "Aerospace Medical Association",
number = "3 SEC. I",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Detection of Leukocyte Activation in Pigs with Neurologic Decompression Sickness

AU - Nyquist, Paul A

AU - Dick, Edward J.

AU - Buttolph, Thomas B.

AU - Temple, Diana J.

PY - 2004/3

Y1 - 2004/3

N2 - Background: In a porcine model of neurological decompression sickness (DCS), perivascular leukocyte activation was a consistent finding in biopsies of associated cutaneous DCS. This prompted examination of other organs for similar changes; multifocal leukocyte activation was found in the lungs (pneumonitis) and liver (hepatitis). Hypothesis: DCS in pigs induces leukocyte aggregation and activation in the liver and lungs. Methods: Male Yorkshire swine, trained to run on a modified treadmill, were compressed to 200 ft of seawater (fsw) in a dry, air-filled compression chamber. Decompression varied according to the profile under study. Results: In 106 pigs, evidence for association of leukocyte aggregation and activation with the clinical diagnosis of neurologic DCS was sought. The incidence of pneumonitis (20/68, 29% with DCS; 4/38, 10% without DCS) and hepatitis (23/68, 33% with DCS; 4/38, 10% without DCS) were strongly correlated with the incidence of neurologic DCS via Pearson Chi-squared analysis (p = 0.026 pneumonitis and p = 0.008 hepatitis. Additionally, Kruskal-Wallis rank analysis for numbers of organs involved and incidence of neurologic DCS showed a strong correlation between the increasing occurrence of neurologic DCS and the involvement of both the liver and lungs (p = 0.004). Conclusions. The results imply that, at least in pigs, DCS induces leukocyte aggregation and activation in the liver and lungs. These organs are not normally considered targets of DCS. Leukocyte aggregation in these organs may be related to their roles as highly perfused organs. Leukocyte aggregation may be a marker for DCS, providing further evidence for wider, systemic effects of DCS.

AB - Background: In a porcine model of neurological decompression sickness (DCS), perivascular leukocyte activation was a consistent finding in biopsies of associated cutaneous DCS. This prompted examination of other organs for similar changes; multifocal leukocyte activation was found in the lungs (pneumonitis) and liver (hepatitis). Hypothesis: DCS in pigs induces leukocyte aggregation and activation in the liver and lungs. Methods: Male Yorkshire swine, trained to run on a modified treadmill, were compressed to 200 ft of seawater (fsw) in a dry, air-filled compression chamber. Decompression varied according to the profile under study. Results: In 106 pigs, evidence for association of leukocyte aggregation and activation with the clinical diagnosis of neurologic DCS was sought. The incidence of pneumonitis (20/68, 29% with DCS; 4/38, 10% without DCS) and hepatitis (23/68, 33% with DCS; 4/38, 10% without DCS) were strongly correlated with the incidence of neurologic DCS via Pearson Chi-squared analysis (p = 0.026 pneumonitis and p = 0.008 hepatitis. Additionally, Kruskal-Wallis rank analysis for numbers of organs involved and incidence of neurologic DCS showed a strong correlation between the increasing occurrence of neurologic DCS and the involvement of both the liver and lungs (p = 0.004). Conclusions. The results imply that, at least in pigs, DCS induces leukocyte aggregation and activation in the liver and lungs. These organs are not normally considered targets of DCS. Leukocyte aggregation in these organs may be related to their roles as highly perfused organs. Leukocyte aggregation may be a marker for DCS, providing further evidence for wider, systemic effects of DCS.

KW - Decompression sickness

KW - Leukocyte aggregation

KW - Neutrophils

KW - Organ perfusion

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=1542410279&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=1542410279&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 75

SP - 211

EP - 214

JO - Aerospace medicine and human performance

JF - Aerospace medicine and human performance

SN - 2375-6314

IS - 3 SEC. I

ER -