Design and validation of an open-source library of dynamic reference frames for research and education in optical tracking

Alisa Brown, Ali Uneri, Tharindu De Silva, Amir Manbachi, Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Dynamic reference frames (DRFs) are a common component of modern surgical tracking systems; however, the limited number of commercially available DRFs poses a constraint in developing systems, especially for research and education. This work presents the design and validation of a large, open-source library of DRFs compatible with passive, single-face tracking systems, such as Polaris stereoscopic infrared trackers (NDI, Waterloo, Ontario). An algorithm was developed to create new DRF designs consistent with intra- and intertool design constraints and convert to computer-aided design (CAD) files suitable for three-dimensional printing. A library of 10 such groups, each with 6 to 10 DRFs, was produced and tracking performance was validated in comparison to a standard commercially available reference, including pivot calibration, fiducial registration error (FRE), and target registration error (TRE). Pivot tests showed calibration error (mean±std)=0.46±0.1 mm, indistinguishable from the reference. FRE was 0.15±0.03 mm, and TRE in a CT head phantom was 0.96±0.5 mm, both equivalent to the reference. The library of DRFs offers a useful resource for surgical navigation research and could be extended to other tracking systems and alternative design constraints.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number021215
JournalJournal of Medical Imaging
Volume5
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018

Keywords

  • dynamic reference frames
  • open-source
  • optical tracking
  • surgical navigation
  • three-dimensional printing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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