Background. Depression and disability are closely linked. Less is known regarding clinical and subclinical depressive symptoms over time and risk of disability and mortality. Methods. Responses to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression scale (CES-D10) were assessed over a 4-year period in men (n = 1032) and women (n = 1070) aged 70-79 years initially free from disability. Depressive symptom trajectories were defined with group-based models. Disability (2 consecutive reports of severe difficulty walking one-quarter mile or climbing 10 steps) and mortality were determined for 9 subsequent years. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards adjusted for covariates. Results. Three trajectories were identified: persistently nondepressed (54% of men, 54% of women, mean baseline CES-D10: 1.16 and 1.46), mildly depressed and increasing (40% of men, 38% of women, mean baseline CES-D10: 3.60 and 4.35), and depressed and increasing (6% of men, 8% of women, mean baseline CES-D10: 7.44 and 9.61). Disability and mortality rates per 1,000 person years were 41.4 and 60.3 in men and 45.8 and 41.9 in women. Relative to nondepressed, men in the mildly depressed (HR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.89) and depressed trajectories (HR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.33-3.38) had increased disability; women in the depressed trajectory had increased disability (HR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.37-2.96). Men in the mildly depressed (HR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.52) and depressed trajectories (HR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.10-2.41) had elevated mortality risk; women exhibited no mortality risk. Conclusions. Trajectories of depressive symptoms without recovery may predict disability and mortality in apparently healthy older populations, thus underscoring the importance of monitoring depressive symptoms in geriatric care.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences|
|State||Published - Feb 1 2016|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geriatrics and Gerontology