The up-regulation of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), certain cell receptors such as integrins and CD44, and the SIBLING family of integrin-binding glycophosphoproteins have been reported separately and in various combinations for many types of tumors. The mechanisms by which these different proteins may be interacting and enhancing the ability of a cancer cell to survive and metastasize have become an interesting issue in cancer biology. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) has been known for a number of years to bind to CD44 and ArgGlyAsp sequence-dependent integrins. This SIBLING was recently shown to be able to specifically bind and activate proMMP-9 and to make MMP-9 much less sensitive to inhibition by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and synthetic inhibitors. In this study, we used a modified Boyden chamber assay to show that DMP1 enhanced the invasiveness of the MMP-9 expressing colon cancer cell line, SW480, through Matrigel in a dose-dependant manner. DMP1 (100 nmol/L) increased invasion 4-fold over controls (86.1 ± 13.9 versus 22.3 ± 9.8, P < 0.001). The enhanced invasive potential required the presence of MMP-9 and at least one of the cell surface receptors, CD44, αvβ 3, or αvβ5 integrin. The bridging of MMP-9 to the cell surface receptors was shown by both pull-down and fluorescence activated cell sorting experiments. Because all of these proteins were also shown by immunohistochemistry to be expressed in serial sections of a colon adenocarcinoma, we have hypothesized that the MMP-9/DMP1/cell surface complexes observed to enhance cell invasion in vitro may be aiding metastatic events in vivo.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research