Purpose: To test the feasibility and safety of injecting a high-contrast hydrogel marker at the head of the pancreas (HOP) and duodenum interface and assesses the marker visibility on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to localize this important boundary during image guided radiation therapy in a porcine model. Methods and Materials: This was a 2-stage study. The feasibility/visibility stage evaluated the ability to place the hydrogel using endoscopic ultrasound guidance on 8 swine (4 euthanized at post-injection day 8, 4 euthanized at post-injection day 22) and assessed the quality of visibility of the marked location on CBCT in the longer-surviving group. The risk assessment stage evaluated the toxicity of targeted intrapancreatic injections (3 swine) and intramural duodenal wall injections (3 swine) to assess toxicity of a misplaced hydrogel injection. All swine underwent postmortem examination and histopathologic studies. Results: The HOP–duodenum interface was successfully marked using hydrogel in 6 of the 8 swine. Histopathologic examination of the 6 successful hydrogel injections showed mild/minimal (4 cases) or moderate (2 cases) reactive inflammation isolated to the injection site. Of the 4 swine survived to 22 days, 3 demonstrated successful hydrogel placement at the HOP–duodenum interface, and this marked location was clearly visible for positional guidance on CBCT. There was no evidence of pancreatitis or duodenal toxicity in the swine undergoing targeted intrapancreatic or intramural duodenum injections for the risk assessment stage. Conclusions: We demonstrate the feasibility and safety of injecting a hydrogel marker to highlight the HOP–duodenum interface that has acceptable visibility on CBCT. This technique, translated to humans, enables on-board visualization of this important boundary between the radiation target and dose-limiting, radiosensitive duodenum, facilitating efforts to safely deliver dose-escalated radiation therapy.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics|
|State||Published - Jul 1 2018|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research