Demographically calibrated norms for two premorbid intelligence measures: The Word Accentuation Test and Pseudo-Words reading subtest

Rocio Del Pino, Javier Peña, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao, David J. Schretlen, Natalia Ojeda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Word Accentuation Test (WAT, Spanish adaptation of the NART) and the Pseudo-Words (PW) Reading subtest from the Battery for Reading Processes Assessment-Revised (PROLEC-R) are measures to estimate premorbid IQ. This study aims to develop demographically calibrated norms for these premorbid measures in a representative sample of the adult Spanish population in terms of age, education, and sex. A sample of 700 healthy participants from 18 to 86 years old completed the WAT and the PW Reading subtest. The effect of age, years of formal education, and sex on WAT total score, PW total score, and time to complete the PW task (PW time) were analyzed. Percentiles and scalar scores were obtained for each raw score according to nine age ranges and individual education levels. The results indicated a significant effect of age and education on the premorbid performance assessed, with no significant effect of sex. Age and education explained from 1.9 to 33.2% of the variance in premorbid IQ variables. Older participants with fewer years of education obtained worse premorbid IQ estimates. This premorbid IQ estimation decline started in the 56-65 age range for WAT total score and PW time, whereas it started in the 71-75 age range for PW total score. This study reports the first demographic-calibrated norms for WAT and PW Reading subtest for Spanish-speaking population. Even though the influence of age and years of education on premorbid IQ measures was confirmed, the PW Reading subtest showed to be more resistant to decline in elderly population than the WAT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1950
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Issue numberOCT
StatePublished - Oct 11 2018


  • Normative data
  • Premorbid IQ
  • Premorbid intelligence
  • Pseudo-words
  • WAT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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