Dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and mortality after hemodialysis initiation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background and objectives Older patients with ESKD experience rapid declines in executive function after initiating hemodialysis; these impairments might lead to high rates of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in this population. We estimated incidence, risk factors, and sequelae of diagnosis with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease among older patients with ESKD initiating hemodialysis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We studied 356,668 older (age ≥66 years old) patients on hemodialysis (January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2013) from national registry data (US Renal Data System) linked to Medicare. We estimated the risk (cumulative incidence) of diagnosis of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease and studied factors associated with these disorders using competing risks models to account for death, change in dialysis modality, and kidney transplant. We estimated the risk of subsequent mortality using Cox proportional hazards models. Results The 1-and 5-year risks of diagnosed dementia accounting for competing risks were 4.6% and 16% for women, respectively, and 3.7% and 13% for men, respectively. The corresponding Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis risks were 0.6% and 2.6% for women, respectively, and 0.4% and 2.0% for men, respectively. The strongest independent risk factors for diagnosis of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease were age ≥86 years old (dementia: hazard ratio, 2.11; 95% confidence interval, 2.04 to 2.18; Alzheimer’s disease: hazard ratio, 2.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.97 to 2.25), black race (dementia: hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.67 to 1.73; Alzheimer’s disease: hazard ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.71 to 1.85), women (dementia: hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.12; Alzheimer’s disease: hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.16), and institutionalization (dementia: hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 1.39; Alzheimer’s disease: hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.15). Older patients on hemodialysis with a diagnosis of dementia were at 2.14-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.07 to 2.22) higher risk of subsequent mortality; those with a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease were at 2.01-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.89 to 2.15) higher mortality risk. Conclusions Older patients on hemodialysis are at substantial risk of diagnosis with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, and carrying these diagnoses is associated with a twofold higher mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1339-1347
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Volume13
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 7 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation

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