Delivery of erbium: YAG laser radiation through side-firing germanium oxide fibers

Anthony K. Ngo, Nathaniel M. Fried

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

The Erbium:YAG laser is currently being tested experimentally for endoscopic applications in urology, including more efficient laser lithotripsy and more precise incision of urethral strictures than the HolmiunrYAG laser. While side-firing silica fibers are available for use with the Ho:YAG laser in urology, no such fibers exist for use with the Er:YAG laser. These applications may benefit from the availability of a side-firing, mid-infrared optical fiber capable of delivering the laser radiation at a 90-degree angle to the tissue. The objective of this study is to describe the simple construction and characterization of a side-firing germanium oxide fiber for potential use in endoscopic laser surgery. Side-firing fibers were constructed from 450-μm-core germanium oxide fibers of 1.45-m-length by polishing the distal tip at a 45-degree angle and placing a 1-cm-long protective quartz cap over the fiber tip. Er:YAG laser radiation with a wavelength of 2.94 μm, pulse duration of 300 μs, pulse repetition rate of 3 Hz, and pulse energies of from 5 to 550 mJ was coupled into the fibers. The fiber transmission rate and damage threshold measured 48±4 % and 149 ± 37 mJ, respectively (n = 6 fibers). By comparison, fiber transmission through normal germanium oxide trunk fibers measured 66 ± 3 %, with no observed damage (n = 5 fibers). Sufficient pulse energies were transmitted through the side-firing fibers for contact tissue ablation. Although these initial tests are promising, further studies will need to be conducted, focusing on assembly of more flexible, smaller diameter fibers, fiber bending transmission tests, long-term fiber reliability tests, and improvement of the fiber output spatial beam profile.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
Volume6083
DOIs
StatePublished - 2006
EventOptical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications VI - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Jan 21 2006Jan 22 2006

Other

OtherOptical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications VI
CountryUnited States
CitySan Jose, CA
Period1/21/061/22/06

Fingerprint

Germanium oxides
Erbium
Laser radiation
Fibers
Urology
Lasers
Laser pulses
Laser surgery
Tissue

Keywords

  • Ablation
  • Endoscopic
  • Erbium
  • Fiber
  • Germanium
  • Mid-infrared
  • Sculpted
  • Side-firing
  • Urology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)

Cite this

Ngo, A. K., & Fried, N. M. (2006). Delivery of erbium: YAG laser radiation through side-firing germanium oxide fibers. In Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE (Vol. 6083). [60830O] https://doi.org/10.1117/12.659598

Delivery of erbium : YAG laser radiation through side-firing germanium oxide fibers. / Ngo, Anthony K.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. Vol. 6083 2006. 60830O.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Ngo, AK & Fried, NM 2006, Delivery of erbium: YAG laser radiation through side-firing germanium oxide fibers. in Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. vol. 6083, 60830O, Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications VI, San Jose, CA, United States, 1/21/06. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.659598
Ngo AK, Fried NM. Delivery of erbium: YAG laser radiation through side-firing germanium oxide fibers. In Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. Vol. 6083. 2006. 60830O https://doi.org/10.1117/12.659598
Ngo, Anthony K. ; Fried, Nathaniel M. / Delivery of erbium : YAG laser radiation through side-firing germanium oxide fibers. Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. Vol. 6083 2006.
@inproceedings{38ab38dad6ac487d9e1b6bc128a5de81,
title = "Delivery of erbium: YAG laser radiation through side-firing germanium oxide fibers",
abstract = "The Erbium:YAG laser is currently being tested experimentally for endoscopic applications in urology, including more efficient laser lithotripsy and more precise incision of urethral strictures than the HolmiunrYAG laser. While side-firing silica fibers are available for use with the Ho:YAG laser in urology, no such fibers exist for use with the Er:YAG laser. These applications may benefit from the availability of a side-firing, mid-infrared optical fiber capable of delivering the laser radiation at a 90-degree angle to the tissue. The objective of this study is to describe the simple construction and characterization of a side-firing germanium oxide fiber for potential use in endoscopic laser surgery. Side-firing fibers were constructed from 450-μm-core germanium oxide fibers of 1.45-m-length by polishing the distal tip at a 45-degree angle and placing a 1-cm-long protective quartz cap over the fiber tip. Er:YAG laser radiation with a wavelength of 2.94 μm, pulse duration of 300 μs, pulse repetition rate of 3 Hz, and pulse energies of from 5 to 550 mJ was coupled into the fibers. The fiber transmission rate and damage threshold measured 48±4 {\%} and 149 ± 37 mJ, respectively (n = 6 fibers). By comparison, fiber transmission through normal germanium oxide trunk fibers measured 66 ± 3 {\%}, with no observed damage (n = 5 fibers). Sufficient pulse energies were transmitted through the side-firing fibers for contact tissue ablation. Although these initial tests are promising, further studies will need to be conducted, focusing on assembly of more flexible, smaller diameter fibers, fiber bending transmission tests, long-term fiber reliability tests, and improvement of the fiber output spatial beam profile.",
keywords = "Ablation, Endoscopic, Erbium, Fiber, Germanium, Mid-infrared, Sculpted, Side-firing, Urology",
author = "Ngo, {Anthony K.} and Fried, {Nathaniel M.}",
year = "2006",
doi = "10.1117/12.659598",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "0819461253",
volume = "6083",
booktitle = "Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE",

}

TY - GEN

T1 - Delivery of erbium

T2 - YAG laser radiation through side-firing germanium oxide fibers

AU - Ngo, Anthony K.

AU - Fried, Nathaniel M.

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - The Erbium:YAG laser is currently being tested experimentally for endoscopic applications in urology, including more efficient laser lithotripsy and more precise incision of urethral strictures than the HolmiunrYAG laser. While side-firing silica fibers are available for use with the Ho:YAG laser in urology, no such fibers exist for use with the Er:YAG laser. These applications may benefit from the availability of a side-firing, mid-infrared optical fiber capable of delivering the laser radiation at a 90-degree angle to the tissue. The objective of this study is to describe the simple construction and characterization of a side-firing germanium oxide fiber for potential use in endoscopic laser surgery. Side-firing fibers were constructed from 450-μm-core germanium oxide fibers of 1.45-m-length by polishing the distal tip at a 45-degree angle and placing a 1-cm-long protective quartz cap over the fiber tip. Er:YAG laser radiation with a wavelength of 2.94 μm, pulse duration of 300 μs, pulse repetition rate of 3 Hz, and pulse energies of from 5 to 550 mJ was coupled into the fibers. The fiber transmission rate and damage threshold measured 48±4 % and 149 ± 37 mJ, respectively (n = 6 fibers). By comparison, fiber transmission through normal germanium oxide trunk fibers measured 66 ± 3 %, with no observed damage (n = 5 fibers). Sufficient pulse energies were transmitted through the side-firing fibers for contact tissue ablation. Although these initial tests are promising, further studies will need to be conducted, focusing on assembly of more flexible, smaller diameter fibers, fiber bending transmission tests, long-term fiber reliability tests, and improvement of the fiber output spatial beam profile.

AB - The Erbium:YAG laser is currently being tested experimentally for endoscopic applications in urology, including more efficient laser lithotripsy and more precise incision of urethral strictures than the HolmiunrYAG laser. While side-firing silica fibers are available for use with the Ho:YAG laser in urology, no such fibers exist for use with the Er:YAG laser. These applications may benefit from the availability of a side-firing, mid-infrared optical fiber capable of delivering the laser radiation at a 90-degree angle to the tissue. The objective of this study is to describe the simple construction and characterization of a side-firing germanium oxide fiber for potential use in endoscopic laser surgery. Side-firing fibers were constructed from 450-μm-core germanium oxide fibers of 1.45-m-length by polishing the distal tip at a 45-degree angle and placing a 1-cm-long protective quartz cap over the fiber tip. Er:YAG laser radiation with a wavelength of 2.94 μm, pulse duration of 300 μs, pulse repetition rate of 3 Hz, and pulse energies of from 5 to 550 mJ was coupled into the fibers. The fiber transmission rate and damage threshold measured 48±4 % and 149 ± 37 mJ, respectively (n = 6 fibers). By comparison, fiber transmission through normal germanium oxide trunk fibers measured 66 ± 3 %, with no observed damage (n = 5 fibers). Sufficient pulse energies were transmitted through the side-firing fibers for contact tissue ablation. Although these initial tests are promising, further studies will need to be conducted, focusing on assembly of more flexible, smaller diameter fibers, fiber bending transmission tests, long-term fiber reliability tests, and improvement of the fiber output spatial beam profile.

KW - Ablation

KW - Endoscopic

KW - Erbium

KW - Fiber

KW - Germanium

KW - Mid-infrared

KW - Sculpted

KW - Side-firing

KW - Urology

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33646188551&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33646188551&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1117/12.659598

DO - 10.1117/12.659598

M3 - Conference contribution

AN - SCOPUS:33646188551

SN - 0819461253

SN - 9780819461254

VL - 6083

BT - Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE

ER -