DeepHarmony: A deep learning approach to contrast harmonization across scanner changes

Blake E. Dewey, Can Zhao, Jacob C. Reinhold, Aaron Carass, Kathryn C. Fitzgerald, Elias S. Sotirchos, Shiv Saidha, Jiwon Oh, Dzung L. Pham, Peter A. Calabresi, Peter C.M. van Zijl, Jerry L. Prince

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a flexible medical imaging modality that often lacks reproducibility between protocols and scanners. It has been shown that even when care is taken to standardize acquisitions, any changes in hardware, software, or protocol design can lead to differences in quantitative results. This greatly impacts the quantitative utility of MRI in multi-site or long-term studies, where consistency is often valued over image quality. We propose a method of contrast harmonization, called DeepHarmony, which uses a U-Net-based deep learning architecture to produce images with consistent contrast. To provide training data, a small overlap cohort (n = 8) was scanned using two different protocols. Images harmonized with DeepHarmony showed significant improvement in consistency of volume quantification between scanning protocols. A longitudinal MRI dataset of patients with multiple sclerosis was also used to evaluate the effect of a protocol change on atrophy calculations in a clinical research setting. The results show that atrophy calculations were substantially and significantly affected by protocol change, whereas such changes have a less significant effect and substantially reduced overall difference when using DeepHarmony. This establishes that DeepHarmony can be used with an overlap cohort to reduce inconsistencies in segmentation caused by changes in scanner protocol, allowing for modernization of hardware and protocol design in long-term studies without invalidating previously acquired data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)160-170
Number of pages11
JournalMagnetic Resonance Imaging
Volume64
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2019

Keywords

  • Contrast harmonization
  • Deep learning
  • Magnetic resonance imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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