We reviewed the course of 54 patients who had unilateral acute retinal necrosis at initial examination. Thirty-one patients were treated with acyclovir, whereas 23 were not. Of the 31 patients treated with acyclovir, 27 (87.1%) had fellow eyes that remained disease-free throughout a median follow-up of 12 months. Of the 23 patients not treated with acyclovir, seven (30.4%) had fellow eyes that remained disease-free throughout a median follow-up of 11 months. Survival analysis indicated that the fellow eyes of the group of patients treated with acyclovir were more likely to remain disease-free than the fellow eyes of the group not treated with acyclovir (P = .0013). Two years after initial onset, the proportion of fellow eyes that remained disease-free was 75.3% for the group treated with acyclovir and 35.1% for the group not treated with acyclovir. These results suggest that acyclovir treatment reduces the risk of involvement of the fellow eye in patients with acute retinal necrosis.
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