Deciphering Arrhythmia Mechanisms: Tools of the Trade

Guy Salama, Fadi G. Akar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Pathophysiological remodeling of cardiac function occurs at multiple levels, spanning the spectrum from molecular and subcellular changes to those occurring at the organ-system level. Of key importance to arrhythmias are changes in electrophysiological and calcium handling properties at the tissue level. This review discusses how high-resolution optical mapping of action potential and calcium transients has advanced our understanding of basic arrhythmia mechanisms associated with multiple cardiovascular disorders, including the long QT syndrome, heart failure, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. The article focuses on the role of repolarization gradients and calcium-mediated triggers in the initiation and maintenance of complex arrhythmias in these settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11-21
Number of pages11
JournalCardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Alternans
  • Arrhythmias
  • Calcium
  • Heart failure
  • Long QT syndrome
  • Mapping
  • Repolarization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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