The daily intake of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc from drinking water is estimated for men, women, and children living in Seattle based on their reported water consumption and the metal concentrations in water from their homes. Metal concentrations were closely associated with the type of plumbing in the home, which was found to be accurately reported by the subjects. Residents of homes with copper plumbing consumed a substantial proportion of their daily required copper from their drinking water, an important finding in view of the possible suboptimal copper levels in American diets. Lead intake levels from water in new homes was comparable to estimated U.S. dietary intakes, but was low relative to levels thought to be toxic. The results suggest practical methods for assessing the associations of chronic diseases with long-term, low-level exposures to these metals.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Science(all)