Cytomegalovirus Urinary Shedding in HIV-infected Pregnant Women and Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection

NICHD HPTN 040 Study Team

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) urinary shedding in pregnant women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was evaluated to determine whether it poses an increased risk for congenital CMV infection (cCMV). Methods. A subset of mother-infant pairs enrolled in the perinatal NICHD HPTN 040 study (distinguished by no antiretroviral use before labor) was evaluated. Maternal and infant urines were tested by qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for CMV DNA with quantitative RT-PCR performed on positive specimens. Results. Urine specimens were available for 260 women with 85.4% from the Americas and 14.6% from South Africa. Twenty-four women (9.2%) had detectable CMV viruria by qualitative PCR. Maternal CMV viruria was not associated with mean CD4 cell counts or HIV viral load but was associated with younger maternal age (P =.02). Overall, 10 of 260 infants (3.8%) had cCMV. Women with detectable peripartum CMV viruria were more likely to have infants with cCMV than those without: 20.8% (5/24) versus 2.1% (5/236), (P =.0001). Women with CMV viruria had significantly higher rates of HIV perinatal transmission (29.2% vs. 8.1%, P =.002). They were 5 times (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-16.8) and nearly 30 times (aOR, 29.7; 95% CI, 5.4-164.2) more likely to transmit HIV and CMV to their infants, respectively. Maternal gonorrhea (aOR, 19.5; 95% CI, 2.5-151.3) and higher maternal HIV log10 viral load (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3-6.3) were also significant risk factors for cCMV. Conclusion. In this cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women not on antiretrovirals, urinary CMV shedding was a significant risk factor for CMV and HIV transmission to infants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)405-413
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1 2017


  • CMV viruria
  • HIV
  • HIV perinatal transmission
  • congenital CMV
  • pregnancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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