Cytokines and other inflammatory mediators of axonal injury

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The infiltration of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes into the central nervous system (CNS) is observed to some degree in most patients with active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Several lines of evidence support a role of T-cells in the development of MS lesions. T-lymphocytes produce several soluble mediators that contribute directly or indirectly to neuronal degeneration. However, many mediators released by T-lymphocytes or other immune cells (eg, macrophages) have both beneficial and harmful effects in the CNS. Several in vitro methods have been developed to quantify the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying human neuronal injury. Measures of neuronal death, neurite retraction, oxidative stress, or mitochondrial membrane potential may provide new tools to evaluate potential neuroprotective therapies for MS and other CNS disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S322-S326
JournalAdvanced Studies in Medicine
Issue number4 B
StatePublished - Apr 1 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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