Of 42 maned wolves in zoos or live-trapped in Brazil, 34 had excessive cystine in their urine. Renal clearance studies of five of the affected wolves revealed a variable defect for the reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids. The renal tubular handling of other solutes including glucose, phosphate, sodium, potassium, and uric acid was considered normal. Urinary calculi composed of cystine were found in four wolves and proved fatal in three of them. With the exception of the high incidence in this species, this hereditary disease resembles the disorder described in dogs and humans.
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