Purpose: To determine whether cyclic voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) examinations can be performed without using real-time fluoroscopic monitoring. Materials and methods: VCUG examinations were performed in 209 children (133 girls and 76 boys). In each child, it was performed in a cyclic manner (three consecutive cycles) without using fluoroscopic monitoring and one radiograph was taken in each cycle of the examination. All patients were sedated by midazolam prior to examination. The degree of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) was graded for each of the kidney ureter units (KUU) (total 418 KUU) separately. Statistical analysis included the comparison of the presence and absence of VUR and three ordinal-matched comparisons of each cycle. Results: VCUG was detected in 37.3% of the children (78/209) and 28.7% (120/418) of the KUU. The absence of or same degree of VUR in three consecutive cycles were obtained in 345 KUU and the agreement was calculated as 82.5%. The same degree and presence of reflux were found in 85 and 89 refluxing KUU, the same negative findings (absence of VUR) in 306 and 298 KUU, and discordant findings in 27 and 31 KUU (between the first and second and between first and third cycles), respectively. Therefore, the agreement was 93.5 and 92.5% between the first and second cycles (p = 0.70) and between the first and the third cycles (p = 0.15), respectively. Conclusion: Both the cyclic nature of this study and the results indicated that VCUG without real-time fluoroscopic monitoring could be used where adequate fluoroscopic examination is not possible for children in whom VUR detection is necessary and impacts treatment. However, the responsibility of pediatric radiologist always must also include the task to provide proper equipment for imaging children with suspected VUR.
- Radiation dose
- Vesicoureteric reflux
- Voiding cystourethrography
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging