To investigate the respective contributions of TLR versus IL-1R mediated signals in MyD88 dependent control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we compared the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection in MyD88, TRIF/MyD88, IL-1R1, and IL-1β-deficient mice. All four strains displayed acute mortality with highly increased pulmonary bacterial burden suggesting a major role for IL-1β signaling in determining the MyD88 dependent phenotype. Unexpectedly, the infected MyD88 and TRIF/MyD88-deficient mice, rather than being defective in IL-1β expression, displayed increased cytokine levels relative to wild-type animals. Similarly, infected mice deficient in caspase-1 and ASC, which have critical functions in inflammasome-mediated IL-1β maturation, showed unimpaired IL-1β production and importantly, were considerably less susceptible to infection than IL-1β deficient mice. Together our findings reveal a major role for IL-1β in host resistance to M. tuberculosis and indicate that during this infection the cytokine can be generated by a mechanism that does not require TLR signaling or caspase-1.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy