Customers’ perceptions of compliance with a tobacco control law in restaurants in hanoi, Vietnam: A cross-sectional study

Anh Kim Dang, Bach Xuan Tran, Long Hoang Nguyen, Hoa Thi Do, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Mercedes Fleming, Huong Thi Le, Quynh Ngoc Hoang Le, Carl A. Latkin, Melvyn W.B. Zhang, Roger C.M. Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Tobacco Harm Prevention Law has been promulgated in 2012 in Vietnam, prohibiting smoking in public places such as restaurants except for designated smoking areas. However, currently, evidence about Vietnamese customers’ and restaurants’ compliance with the Law is constrained. This study aimed to explore customers’ perceptions; attitudes and practices towards the compliance with tobacco control regulations in the restaurants in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was performed in October 2015 with 1746 customers in 176 communes in Hanoi, Vietnam. Data about customers’ perceptions on how restaurants comply with the smoking control law and whether customers smoking actively or experienced SHS in restaurants in the last 30 days were collected. Multivariable mixed effects logistic regression model was used to determine the factors related to smoking in the restaurant. Most customers were aware of the law on Tobacco Harm Prevention (79%; n = 1320) and regulations that prohibited smoking in restaurants (78.4%; n = 1137). While 75.8% (n = 1285) of customers perceived that they did not see or rarely saw no-smoking signs, 17.7% (n = 481) of customers reported that they frequently saw direct marketing of tobacco in visited restaurants. About one-fourth of customers witnessed that the staff reminded customers not to smoke inside restaurants (28.8%; n = 313), and 65% (n = 1135) sometimes or always were exposed to secondhand smoke in their visited restaurants. People who were female (OR = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.01–0.05) were less likely to report their smoking in the restaurant than their counterparts. Those having higher age (OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01–1.06), high school education (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.07–4.26), being office workers (OR = 3.24, 95% CI = 1.33–7.92) or unemployed (OR = 4.45; 95% CI = 1.09–18.15) had a higher likelihood of reporting to be restaurant smokers than those having lower high education or students, respectively. This study highlighted a low level of perceived compliance with the smoke-free law in Vietnamese restaurants. Improving the monitoring systems for the enforcement of the smoking law in restaurants should be prioritized; restaurant owners should implement 100% smoke-free environments as following the best practice towards the tobacco control law along with educational campaigns to promote the awareness of restaurant owners and customers about the tobacco control law.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1451
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 10 2018


  • Law
  • Restaurant
  • Secondhand smoke
  • Smoking
  • Tobacco
  • Vietnam

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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