Thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO) is a common diagnosis encountered by ophthalmologists and oculoplastic surgeons. TAO has a varying clinical presentation that can include upper eyelid retraction, restrictive strabismus, proptosis, exposure keratopathy, and optic neuropathy. In this review, we discuss the most recent literature on and the current understanding of the pathophysiology of TAO. We also review available and potential future treatment options for the management of TAO.
- Graves’ orbitopathy
- Thyroid associated orbitopathy
- Thyroid eye disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas