Current Understanding of the Progression and Management of Thyroid Associated Orbitopathy: A Systematic Review

Nickisa M. Hodgson, Fatemeh Rajaii

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO) is a common diagnosis encountered by ophthalmologists and oculoplastic surgeons. TAO has a varying clinical presentation that can include upper eyelid retraction, restrictive strabismus, proptosis, exposure keratopathy, and optic neuropathy. In this review, we discuss the most recent literature on and the current understanding of the pathophysiology of TAO. We also review available and potential future treatment options for the management of TAO.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21-33
Number of pages13
JournalOphthalmology and Therapy
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2020

Keywords

  • Corticosteroid
  • Graves’ orbitopathy
  • Rituximab
  • Selenium
  • Teprotumumab
  • Thyroid associated orbitopathy
  • Thyroid eye disease
  • Tocilizumab

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

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