Current spectrum of cardiogenic shock and effect of early revascularization on mortality results of an international registry

Judith S. Hochman, Jean Boland, Lynn A. Sleeper, Mark Porway, Jeffrey Brinker, Jacques Col, Alice Jacobs, James Slater, David Miller, Hal Wasserman, Mark A. Menegus, J. David Talley, Sonja McKinlay, Timothy Sanborn, Thierry LeJemtel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

328 Scopus citations


Background: Cardiogenic shock remains the leading cause of death of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (MI). This study was conducted to examine (1) the current spectrum of cardiogenic shock, (2) the proportion of patients who are potential candidates for a trial of early revascularization, and (3) the apparent impact of early revascularization on mortality. Methods and Results: Nineteen participating centers in the United States and Belgium prospectively registered all patients diagnosed with cardiogenic shock. Two hundred fifty-one patients were registered. The mean age was 67.5±11.7 years, and 43% were women. Acute mitral regurgitation or ventricular septal rupture was the cause of shock in 8%. Concurrent conditions contributing to the development of shock were noted in 5%, and 2% had isolated right ventricular shock. Among the remaining 214 patients, nonspecific findings on the ECG associated with "nontransmural" MI were seen in 14%. The median time to shock diagnosis after MI was 8 hours. The overall in-hospital mortality was 66%. Patients clinically selected to undergo cardiac catheterization were significantly younger and had a lower mortality than those not selected (51% versus 85%, P<.0001) even if they were not revascularized (58%). Mortality for patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was 60% (n=55) and 19% (n=16) for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Sixty percent (n=150) of registered patients were judged eligible for a trial of early revascularization. Trial-eligible patients were significantly younger (65.4±11.0 versus 70.6±11.9 years, P<.001), had an earlier median time to shock onset after MI (6.5 versus 17.5 hours, P=.003), and had lower mortality (62% versus 73%, P= .077) than ineligible patients. Conclusions: Patients diagnosed with cardiogenic shock complicating acute MI are a heterogeneous group. Those eligible for a trial of early revascularization tended to have lower mortality. Patients selected to undergo cardiac catheterization had lower mortality whether or not they were revascularized. Emergent PTCA and CABG are promising treatment modalities for cardiogenic shock, but biased case selection for treatment may confound the data. Whether PTCA and CABG reduce mortality and which patient subgroups benefit most remain to be determined in a randomized clinical trial.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)873-881
Number of pages9
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 1 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • Angioplasty
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Revascularization
  • Shock

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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