Current management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and Ehrlichia ewingii ehrlichiosis

Rachael J. Thomas, J. Stephen Dumler, Jason A. Carlyon

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii are emerging tick-borne pathogens and are the causative agents of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and E. ewingii ehrlichiosis, respectively. Collectively, these are referred to as human ehrlichioses. These obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of the family Anaplasmataceae are transmitted by Ixodes spp. or Amblyomma americanum ticks and infect peripherally circulating leukocytes to cause infections that range in clinical spectra from asymptomatic seroconversion to mild, severe or, in rare instances, fatal disease. This review describes: the ecology of each pathogen; the epidemiology, clinical signs and symptoms of the human diseases that each causes; the choice methods for diagnosing and treating human ehrlichioses; recommendations for patient management; and is concluded with suggestions for potential future research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)709-722
Number of pages14
JournalExpert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy
Volume7
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2009

Keywords

  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum
  • Anaplasmosis
  • Diagnosis
  • Ehrlichia chaffeensis
  • Ehrlichia ewingii
  • Human ehrlichiosis
  • Human granulocytic anaplasmosis
  • Human monocytic ehrlichiosis treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

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