Osteonecrosis (ON) of the knee is a debilitating disease that is poorly understood. Originally described as a single disorder, it encompasses three distinct conditions: spontaneous ON of the knee, secondary ON of the knee, and postarthroscopic ON of the knee. This article reviews the current knowledge of these distinct conditions by describing their etiology, pathology, and pathogenesis in addition to their clinical and radiographic presentations. The various treatment options available for each condition are reviewed, with a discussion of their rationale and indications and a summary of results with various techniques. A thorough understanding of these conditions and their distinguishing features is critical to selecting the best treatment option for an individual patient.
- Current literature
- Orthopaedic in-training examination
- Resident training
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine