To determine the varied causes of oropharyngeal dysphagia and their respective pathophysiology, a working understanding of the normal anatomy and function of the highly integrated mechanism of swallowing is outlined. This information is presented as the basis for a reasoned and detailed approach to the history, physical examination, and endoscopic evaluation of normal and altered oropharyngeal swallowing. The management of swallowing disorders depends on the nature and magnitude of the responsible clinical condition. Conservative and surgical approaches are discussed. These modalities and their indications are described in detail.
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