Improvements in neonatal intensive care technology and the ability to accurately monitor oxygen therapy have led to increased survival of severely premature infants. This has caused an increased incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in the 1980s and has renewed interest in the prevention and treatment of this disease. This article reviews current concepts in the prevention and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity as well as avenues for future investigation. Vitamin E supplementation, surfactant treatment, cryotherapy, laser therapy, surgery, STOP-ROP, and Light-ROP are discussed.
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