Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disease whose diagnosis is challenging. The best diagnostic approaches combine the patient's pretest clinical probability of disease with D-dimer testing and/or diagnostic imaging. In light of several advantages, low-molecular-weight heparins are now recommended over unfractionated heparin for most patients with acute VTE. Newer anticoagulants such as the factor Xa inhibitor fondaparinux also show promise for acute VTE. For chronic management, the duration and intensity of warfarin therapy should be tailored to the individual patient.
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